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014 422 319 6 * 

TX 601 
Copy l 

tory Edition 1919 



of Vegetables & Fruits 

Published, by 

National War Garden Commission 

Washington, D.C. 





June 7, 1918. 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sirs: 

i The War Department finds much satisfaction in the creation of War Gardens 
at Various army camps by the Conservation and Reclamation Division of the 
Quartermaster General's office. Food production at these camps has been the 
subject of some concern with the department. The large areas of tillable land 
within many of the military reservations have been regarded as offering potential 
food production on a large scale, and I feel that the army is to be congratulated 
that the utilization of this space has now taken concrete form. 

Camp War Gardens will serve more than one useful purpose. The pro- 
duction of food at the mess door is of great importance in that it not only lessens 
the army's demand on the usual sources of supply but eliminates transportation 
as well. 

To the National War Garden Commission I extend the thanks of the Depart- 
ment for its quick response to the appeal of the Quartermaster General's office 
for co-operation. Not confining itself to mere compliance with the letter of the 
request, the Commission entered fully into its spirit. At a time when funds 
were not available through Government channels the Commission voluntarily 
provided seed, fertilizers and equipment which made possible the establishment 
of a War Garden of 300 acres or more at Camp Dix. • For this generous contri- 
bution and for swift action to overcome the handicap of a late start I take pleasure 
in making this acknowledgment and in expressing the hope that the Camp Dix 
War Garden of the National War Garden Commission will prove an unqualified 

Cordially yours, 

(Signed) NEWTON D. BAKER, 

Secretary of War. 


Baltimore, Maryland. 
September 14, 1918. 
• Maryland Building, 

Washington, D. C. 

We wish to express to you our appreciation of your helpfulness in our war 
garden, canning and drying work in Maryland during the season of 1918. Your 
book on canning and drying has been of great value, while the canning outfits 
which you so kindly gave us made it possible for us to establish canning centers 
throughout the State, with results of far-reaching importance which could not have 
been otherwise accomplished. We are equally appreciative of your prompt and 
willing response to our request for the services of one of your trained investigators 
to assist in our war garden work. Your spirit of prompt and willing service is 
cordially appreciated. 

Yours truly, 


Federal Food Administrator for Maryland. 

DEC 30 ISIS ©CLA5I1324 



National War Garden Commission 


'E stand with our backs to the 
wall." That call to the civ- 
ilized world, made by Gen- 
eral Haig in the spring of 191 8, has 
brought and still must bring answer 
from the women. Only by their co- 
operation has it been possible for that 
call to be answered, for no nation can 
do a great work unless the women of 
that nation put their influence into 
the job. 

We were forced into a war which 
was something more than a war to 
decide policies or mark boundaries — 
a war involving the most sacred 
questions with which men and 
women have to deal— the sanctity of 
womanhood, the sacredness of child- 
hood and the right to live in free- 
dom. We could not yield these rights 
while we had the strength to defend 

In the emergency created by this 
war the question of food goes hand 
in hand with thrift. Our position 
has been no less closely involved in 
the conflict than that of Europe. In 
proof of this let me call attention 
to the plan the enemy had for us. I 
quote from a book called "War," by 
Klaus Wagner, published in 191 6 in 
Berlin. On page 165 the author says: 

"Not only North America, but the 
whole of America must become a bul- 
wark of German Kitltur, perhaps the 
strongest fortress of the Germanic 
races. That is every one's hope who 
frees himself from his own local Eu- 
ropean pride and who places race 
feeling above his love for home." 

Mark that well — his race feeling 
above his love for home; and then let 
me quote one of the thousands of let- 
ters received by the National War 

Garden Commission. Here it is, from 
a boy: 

" I have decided to help win the 
war by having a war garden, and I 
have just read your notice that any 
one can have a free garden book. 
Please send it to me. My father 
joined the army in 1915 and was 
killed in 1916. — Harvey Cameron, 
New Glasgow, Nova Scotia." 

That boy is typical of the boys and 
men of many nations who have been 
fighting against the common enemy. 
If they could look the job in the face 
that way, what can we do? Our boys 
have been giving their lives toward 
the achievement of victory. Every 
mile of reclaimed territory in devas- 
tated France and Belgium adds hun- 
dreds of hungry mouths to be fed. 
With France and Belgium liberated 
many more people have become de- 
pendent on this country's food sup- 
ply. In victory we must feed not 
only more millions abroad but also 
care for our own people at home and 
our soldiers until they return. Peace 
cannot mean an increase of the 
world's grain supply for another year 
at least, and it will take several years 
of bountiful crops to refill the empty 
bins and granaries of the world. 

Victory, therefore, must necessarily 
bring a large increase in our obliga- 
tion. We must not only produce 
food as close to the kitchen door as 
possible, but we must save a vast vol- 
ume of this food for winter use. To 
save it we must can it, dry it, or other- 
wise prepare to have it in readiness 
for the months of non-production. 
Canning and drying, therefore, are as 
imperative to-day as if the war were 
just beginning. 


The following time-table shows blanching time for various vegetables and fruits, and 
also sterilizing time in the hot-water bath outfit, and in equipment for sterilization by the 
water-seal method, the steam-pressure method and the aluminum steam-cooker method: 





Water seal 

Steam pressure in lbs. 

5 to 10 

10 to 15 



Brussels sprouts 






Lima beans 



Peppers, sweet or hot . 
Peppers, pimentos. . . . 





String beans 



10 to 15 


5 to 10 

5 to 10 



5 to 10 

5 to 10 

5 to 10 


5 to 10 


5 to 10 
See directions 








Cherries, sweet 

Cherries, sour 


Fruit juices 











Fruits without sugar. 

5 to 10 

Sec directions 

To loosen skins 


1 to 2 
See directions 
1 to 2 
1 to 2 
To loosen skins 
3 to 5 








































The time given in this table is for quart jars. Add 30 minutes for 2-quart jars and deduct 5 
minutes for pint jars. 

The time given is for fresh, sound and firm vegetables. Increase the time of sterilization 
adding one-fifth for vegetables which have been gathered over 24 hours. 

The time given is for altitudes up to 1000 feet above sea level. For higher altitudes increase the 
time in hot-water bath 10 per cent for each additional 500 feet. For example, if the time is given as 120 
minutes in the table and your location is 1500 feet above sea level, the time should be made 132 minutes. 

Neither home-made nor commercial hot-water bath outfits are entirely satisfactory, however, for 
canning at very high altitudes, as the temperature of water in them does not reach 212 degrees F. In 
such localities water-seal and steam-pressure outfits are advisable, as they give higher temperatures. 



To save vegetables and fruits by canning this year is a patriotic duty. War 
has made the need for Food Conservation more imperative than at any time 
in history. America is responsible for the food supply of Europe. The 
American family can do nothing more helpful in this emergency than to 
Can All Food That Can be Canned. In this way the abundance of the summer 
may be made to supply the needs of the winter. 


The National War Garden Commission's 
campaign for five million or more War Gar- 
dens lias brought about the creation of a vast 
food supply hitherto greatly neglected. To 
utilize this to the best advantage calls for 
Canning operations in every household 
throughout the nation. 

The preservation of foodstuffs by Canning 
is always effective Food Thrift. It enables 
the individual house- 
hold to take advantage 
of summer's low prices 
for vegetables even if 
no garden has been 
planted. It effects the 
saving of a surplus of 
foodstuffs that would 
otherwise be wasted 
through excess of sup- 
ply over immediate 
consumption. It elimi- 
nates the cold storage 
cost that must be added to the prices of 
commodities bought during the winter. Of 
vital importance, also, is that it relieves 
the strain on transportation facilities of 
the country. This phase has been especially 
emphasized for this year by the unprece- 
dented traffic situation. All this increases 
the need for Home Canning and proves that 
this is a national obligation. 


By the Single Period Cold-Pack method it 
is as easy to can vegetables as to can fruits, 
and this year it is more useful. By the use of 
this method canning may be done in the 
kitchen or out of doors. It may be done in 
the individual household or by groups of 
families. Community canning is important 
in that it makes possible the use of the best 


In some parts of the Southern .States 
there has been complaint as to results 
obtained in the use of the Single Period 
Cold-pack method, but inquiry and re- 
search have shown that in most cases the 
trouble arose from lack of care in follow- 
ing instructions or the use of poor rub- 
bers, and was not to be blamed on the 
method itself. With proper care and per- 
fect cleanliness the results in the South 
are as good as elsewhere. 

equipment at small individual outlay and 
induces Food Conservation on a large scale. 
Community canning by school children, under 
the direction of competent teachers, is espe- 
cially valuable. 

This Manual presents all necessary in- 
structions for canning vegetables and fruits, 
in a manner which may be so readily under- 
stood that the work is no longer a problem, 
but is so simple that 
any adult or child may 
do it with success. 


One of the best 
methods to follow in 
canning and drying 
operations is for sev- 
eral families to club 
together for the work. 
The work may be car- 
ried on at a school house, in a vacant store- 
room, at the home of one of the members or 
at some other convenient and central loca- 
tion where heat and water can be made avail- 
able. By joining in the purchase of equip- 
ment each participant will be in position 
to save money as against individual pur- 
chases and at the same time have the ad- 
vantage of larger and more complete equip- 
ment. The cost is slight when thus divided 
and the benefits very great to all concerned. 
For a co-operative enterprise it is well to 
have a committee of from three to five to take 
charge of all details. First determine how 
many people will take part in the work, how 
much each proposes to can or dry, what 
vegetables and fruits each will furnish and 
such other information as will have a bear- 
ing on the selection of equipment. After 
deciding how much money will be needed, 


have each member contribute his or her 
proportion, determined by the amount of 
canning or drying he or she proposes to do. 

The equipment should be bought as early 
as possible to prevent disappointment in 


• i 


/a \ 




Fig. 1. Home-made rack for wash-boiler. 

delivery which is almost certain to follow 
delay. This equipment may be ordered 
through a local dealer or direct from the 
manufacturers. The National War Garden 
Commission publishes a list of manufacturers 
which may be had upon application. 

The equipment may be used by the in- 
dividual members on a schedule arranged by 
the committee, or a working force may be 
appointed to do all the work, receiving pay 
in the form of a percentage of the product. 

Publicity is important in keeping interest 
aroused and there should be a committee to 
arrange with the local papers for the publica- 
tion of information concerning the enterprise. 
This serves as an incentive to others. 

The National War Garden Commission 
will send upon application its pamphlet on 
Community and Neighborhood Canning and 
Drying, giving details as to organization. 


The scientist has proved that food decay is 
caused by microorganisms, classed as bacteria, 
yeasts and molds. Success in canning neces- 

MgttittyjtjKflmwj? " "^ 

Fig. 2. Wash-boiler with rack for jars. 

sitates the destruction of these organisms. 
A temperature of 160° to 190° F. will kill 
yeasts and molds. Bacteria are destroyed at 
a temperature of 212° F. held for the proper 
length of time. The destruction of these 
organisms by heat is called sterilization. 


There are five principal methods of home 
canning. These are: 

1. Single Period Cold-pack Method. 

2. Fractional or Intermittent Sterilization 

3. Open Kettle or Hot-pack Method. 

4. Cold Water Method. 

5. Vacuum Seal Method. 

The method recommended for home use 
is the Single Period Cold-pack method. 
It is much the best because of its simplicity 
and effectiveness, and in this book detailed 
instructions are given for its use. 

The outlines of the various methods are: 
1. Single Period Cold-pack Method: The 
prepared vegetables or fruits are blanched in 
boiling water or live steam, then quickly 
cold-dipped and packed at once into hot jars, 
the contents covered with boiling water or 
syrup, and the jars partially sealed and 
sterilized in boiling water or by steam pres- 
sure. The jars are then sealed tight, tested 
for leaks and stored. Full details are given 
on page 7 and the pages following. 

Fig. 3. A type of commercial canner for hot-water 
bath, using wood, coal, charcoal, chips, cobs, or brush. 

2. Fractional or I tent Sterilization 
Method: Vegetables are half sealed in jars 
and sterilized for 1 hour or more on each of 
three successive days. This method is ex- 
pensive as to time, labor and fuel and dis- 
courages the home canning of vegetables. 

3. Open Kettle or Hot- pack Method: Vege- 
tables or fruits are cooked in an open kettle 
and packed in jars. There is always danger 
of spores and bacteria being introduced on 
spoons or other utensils while the jars are 
being filled. This method should never be 
used in canning vegetables. Even with fruits 
it is not as desirable as the cold-pack. 

4. Cold-water Method: Rhubarb, cran- 
berries, gooseberries, and sour cherries, be- 
cause of their acidity, are often canned by 
this method. The fruits are washed, put" in 
sterilized jars, cold water is added to over- 
flowing, and the jar is then sealed. This 
method is not always successful as the acid 
content varies with ripeness and the locality 
in which the fruits are grown. 


5. Vacuum Seal Method: Vegetables are 
washed, blanched, cold-dipped and cooked 
as for table use; packed and sealed in especially 
made vacuum seal jars. The jars must be 
well made and the work properly done to 
bring about satisfactory results. 


The Single Period Cold-pack method is 
a simple and sure way of canning. It in- 
sures a good color, texture and flavor to the 
vegetable or fruit canned. In using this 
method sterilization is completed in a single 

period, saving 
time, fuel and 
labor. The sim- 
plicity of the 
method c o m - 
mends it. Fruits 
are put up in 
syrups. Vege- 
tables require 
only salt for 
flavoring and 
water to fill the 

Another ad- 
vantage is that 
it is practicable 
to put up food 
in small as well 
as large quanti- 
ties. The house- 
\v i f e who un- 
derstands the 
process will find 

Fig. 4. Steam pressure canner; 
home and community canning. 

that it pays to put up even a single con- 
tainer. Thus, when she has a small surplus 
of some garden crop she should take the 
time necessary to place this food in a con- 
tainer and store it for future use. This is 
true household efficiency. 


1. The Homemade Hot-water Bath Outfit. — 
A serviceable Single Period Cold-pack can- 
ning outfit may be made of equipment found 
in almost any household. Any utensil large 
and deep enough to allow an inch of water 
above jars, and a false bottom beneath them, 
and having a closely fitting cover, may be 
used for sterilizing. A wash-boiler, large lard 
can or new garbage pail serves the purpose 
when canning is to be done in large quantities. 
Into this utensil should be placed a wire or 
wooden rack to hold the jars off the bottom 
and so constructed as to permit circulation of 
water underneath the jars. 

For lifting glass-top jars use two button- 
hooks or similar device. For lifting screw- 
top jars, suitable lifters may be bought for a 
small sum. A milk carrier makes a good 
false bottom, and if this is used the jars 
may be easily lifted out at the end of the 
sterilization period. 

2. Commercial Hot -water Bath Outfits. — 
There are upon the market outfits on the order 
of the wash-boiler or pail type of homemade 
canner. These are excellent and are es- 
pecially desirable if one has considerable 
quantities of vegetables or fruits to put up. 
There are also commercial canners conve- 

Fig. 5. Water-seal outfit. On the left is shown the 
cover, with thermometer. In the center is the double 
walled vat or holder. On the right is a crate for jars. 

nient for out-door work, having fire-box and 
smoke-pipe all in one piece with the sterilizing 
vat. As with the homemade outfit, contain- 
ers are immersed in boiling water. 

3. Water Seal Outfits. — These are desirable, 
as the period of sterilization is shorter than in 
the homemade outfit and less fuel is therefore 
required. The outfit consists of two con- 
tainers, one fitting within the other, and a 
cover which extends into the space between 
the outer and the inner container. The 
waterjacket makes it possible for the tem- 
perature in the 
inner container 
to be r a i s ed 
several degrees 
above 212° F. 

4. Steam Pres- 
sure Outfits. — 
Canning is very 
rapid when ster- 
ilization is done 
in steam main- 
tained at a pres- 
sure. There are 
several canners 
of this t} r pe. 
Each is pro- 
vided with pres- 
sure gauge and 
safety valve and 
they carry from 

Fig. 6. Aluminum pressure canner. 

5 to 30 pounds of steam pressure. This type 
is suitable for home or community canning. 

5. Aluminum Pressure Outfits. — These cook- 
ers are satisfactory for canning and for general 
cooking. They carry from 5 to 30 pounds of 
steam pressure. Each outfit is provided with 
a steam pressure gauge and safety valve. 


At high altitudes the boiling point of 
water is below 212° F. At moderate eleva- 
tions satisfactory results may be obtained 
in the use of the hot-water bath by increasing 
the time of sterilization 10 per cent for every 


500 feet above 1000. To insure best results 
in very high altitudes, however, a steam 
pressure canner or aluminum pressure cooker 

is recommend- 
ed to be used. 
This type of 
canner pro- 
duces a temper- 
ature up to 250° 
F. at 15 lbs. 
pressure, insur- 
ing proper ster- 
i 1 i z a t i o n and 
also saving time 
and fuel. A 
steam pressure 
canner may be 
bought around 
$20. Several 
families may 
Fig. 7. Home canner and steam use one, and di- 
cooker holding 14 quart jars. Re- . , , ' 
quires same time as hot-water bath. Viae tne cost. 


1. Have water in the canner up to the false 
bottom, but not above it. Keep this water 
boiling during the time that packed jars are 
being placed in the canner, and add water 
occasionally to prevent its boiling dry. 

2. To prepare product follow instructions 
in " Steps in the Single Period Cold-pack 
Method " on pages 8 and 9. As each jar is 
packed, set it at once, partially sealed, in the 
canner. The cover of the canner may be put 
in position, but not clamped. 

3. When all of the filled jars are placed in 
the canner, put on the cover, and fasten op- 
posite clamps moderately tight; then tighten 
each pair of clamps fully. 

4. The petcock should be left open until 
live steam escapes from it. The canner 
should be steam-tight, and no steam should 
escape except through the open petcock. 
When live steam escapes, close the petcock 

5. Begin to count time when the steam 
gauge registers the required temperature. 

6. Maintain a uniform pressure during the 
sterilizing period by setting the weight on the 
arm, when the proper pressure is registered on 
the steam gauge, so that surplus steam will es- 
cape at that desired pressure. A uniform 
temperature may be maintained also, by 
turning down the flame or moving the canner 
to a less hot part of the stove. 

7. When the sterilization period is com- 
plete, do not allow steam to escape, but allow 
the canner to cool until the steam gauge 
registers zero. 

8. Open petcock, remove the cover of 
canner, and take out the jars. As each jar is 
removed, complete seal at once. 


For home use glass jars are more satisfac- 
tory for canning than tin. This is especially 
true this year when there is a shortage of tin 
cans. Tin cans are used chiefly for canning 
on a large scale for commercial purposes. 

There are many jars of different styles 
and prices on the market; and provided the 
seal is not defective, equally good results 
may be obtained from all. Glass is a popular 
household choice because one can see through 
it and thus have some idea as to the condi- 
tion of the contents. Glass jars may be 
used for years if properly cared for. 

All types of jars which seal readily may be 
used. Jars having glass tops held in place 
by bails are especially easy to handle while 
hot. Screw-top jars are serviceable. Glass 
caps held in place by separate metal screw 
bands are now on the market, as well as the 
one-piece sort of former years. Vacuum 
seal jars are very easily managed. Tops for 
Economy jars should be purchased each year. 
The composition material, which takes the 
place of rubber, should have a rubber-like tex- 
ture. If of mealy consistency it is unfit for 
use and the top will not make a tight seal. 

The color and shape of jars are not of first 
moment, but are to be considered. Con- 
tainers made 
of white glass 
should be used 
if the product 
is to be offered 
for sale, as 
blue or green 
glass detracts 
from the ap- 
pearance of 
the contents. 
jars are best 
for packing 
whole products 
and are easiest to clean. Small-necked 
bottles can be used for fruit juices. Large- 
mouthed bottles can be used for jams, mar- 
malades and jellies. 


Jars should be tested before they are used. 
Some of the important tests are here given: 

1 . Glass-top Jars. — First examine for cracks. 
Then run a finger around the edge of necks of 
jars, and if there are sharp projections, file 
them off, or scrape them off with an old knife. 
If left on they may cut rubbers and interfere 
with perfect sealing. Place a top on a jar. 
It will slip from side to side, but should not 
rock, when tapped. Rocking tops will not 
make a tight seal. Sometimes the fault is 
with the top and sometimes with the neck. 
Defective jars and tops when discarded for 

Fig. 8. Rack for jars. 


canning purposes may be used as containers 
for jams, etc. The top-bail should go into 
position with a light snap. If too loose it 
should be taken off and bent slightly inward 
in the center. If too tight bend outward. 

2. Screw-top Jars. — Use only enameled, 
lacquered or vulcanized tops. Screw the top 

on tightly 
without the 
rubber. If the 
tip of a knife 
or finger - nail 
can be inserted 
under the rim, 
not be used for 
cold-pack can- 
ning. If the 
defect is very 
slight, how- 
ever, it may 
be remedied by pressing a knife handle on 
the lower edge against a hard surface, thus 
straightening the offending bulge. Another 
test is made by putting on the rubber, screw- 
ing the top on tightly and then pulling the 
rubber out. If the rubber returns to place, 
the top does not fit and should not be used 
on that jar. 

3. Vacuum seal jars may be tested in the 
same way as the glass-top jars. See if the tops 
rock if tapped, when placed on the jar without 


1. Good Rubber Essential. — Buy new rub- 
bers every year, as rubbers deteriorate from 
one season to another. A good rubber for 

Fig. 9. Wire rack for jars. 

Fig. 10. Simple test for rubbers. A perfect rubber 
will show no crease or break after being folded tightly 
several times. 

cold-pack canning must be such as to stand 
four hours of continuous boiling or one hour 
under 10 pounds of steam pressure. The 
combination of moist heat plus acids and 
mineral matter in vegetables and fruits tends 
to break down the rubbers during steriliza- 
tion. Rubbers kept in a hot or very warm 
place, as for example, on a shelf near the 
kitchen range, will deteriorate in quality. 
Be very particular about the rubbers used. 
Spoilage of canned goods has been traced 
frequently to the use of poor rubbers. 

2. Testing Rubbers. — It is always well to 
test rubbers when buying. A good rubber 
will return to its original size when stretched. 
It will not crease when bent double and 
pinched (Fig. 10). It should fit the neck 

of the jar snugly. It is cheaper to discard a 
doubtful rubber than to lose a jar of canned 


Vegetables and fruits should be sorted ac- 
cording to color, size and ripeness. This is 
called grading. It insures the best pack and 
uniformity of flavor and texture to the canned 
product, which is always desirable. 


The most important steps in canning are 
the preliminary steps of blanching, cold- 
dipping, packing in hot, clean containers, 
adding hot water at once, then immediately 
half sealing jars and putting into the sterilizer. 
Spoilage of products is nearly always due to 
carelessness in one of these steps. Blanching 
is necessary with all vegetables and some 
fruits. It insures thorough cleansing and re- 
moves objectionable odors and flavors and 
excess acids. It starts the flow of coloring 
matter. It reduces the bulk of greens 
and causes shrinkage of fruits, increasing the 
quantity which may be packed in a con- 
tainer, which saves storage space. 

Blanching consists of plunging the vege- 
tables or fruits into boiling water or exposing 
them to steam for a short time. For blanch- 
ing in boiling water place them in a wire 
basket (Fig. 17) or piece of cheesecloth (Fig. 
18). The blanching time varies from one to 
fifteen minutes, as shown in the time-table 
on page 2, and the products should be kept 
under water throughout the period. Begin 
counting time when the articles are first 
placed in boiling water or steam. 

Spinach and other greens should not be 
blanched in hot water. They must be 
blanched in steam to prevent the loss of 
mineral salts, volatile oils and other valuable 
substances. To do this place them in a 
colander and set this 
into a vessel which has 
a tightly fitting cover. 
In this vessel there 
should be an inch or 
two of water, but the 
water must not be al- 
lowed to touch the greens 
(Fig. 12). Another meth- 
od is to suspend the 
greens in the closed 
vessel above an inch or 

two of water. This may be done in a wire 
basket or in cheesecloth. Allow the water to 
boil in the closed vessel fifteen minutes. Ex- 
cellent results are obtained, also, by the use 
of a steam cooker or steam pressure canner. 

When the blanching is complete remove the 
vegetables or fruits from the boiling water 
or steam and plunge them once or twice 

Fig. 11. Wire rack 
for jars. 



into cold water — the colder the better. 
This latter process is the Cold Dip. It 
hardens the pulp under the skin, so that the 
products are not injured by peeling. It also 
sets the coloring matter. Do not allow the 
products to stand in the cold water. 

Always blanch and cold-dip only enough 
product to fill one or two jars at a time. 
The blanching and cold -dipping should follow 
at once when the vegetable or fruit is pre-' 
pared, and the packing into jars should im- 
mediately follow the blanching and cold-dip. 


Processing is the sterilization treatment 
to which products are subjected after pack- 
ing them into jars. As soon as the jar is 
filled, put the rubber and cap in place and 
partially seal by adjusting top bail or screw- 
ing on top with thumb and little finger. If 
Economy jars are used the top should be held 
in place with clamp. The jar should then be 
put into sterilizer at once. 

In using the hot-water bath outfit, count 
the time of sterilization from the time water 
begins to boil. 
The water in the 
sterilizer should 
be at or just be- 
low the boiling 
point when jars 
are put in. With 
the Water Seal 
Outfit begin 
counting time 
when the ther- 
mometer reaches 
214° F. With 
the Steam Pres- 
sure Outfit begin 
counting time 
the number of 

Fig. 12. Use of a colander to 
blanch greens in steam. The col- 
ander is placed in a receptacle 
with tightly fitting cover. No 
water should touch the greens. 

when the gauge reaches 
pounds called for in directions. 

When the processing is finished, at once 
remove and seal each jar. 


It is important to plan your work so that 
whatever may be needed will be ready for 
use. Arrange everything conveniently in 
advance. Preliminary provisions include: 

1. A reliable alarm clock in a convenient 
place (set to ring when the sterilizing is done). 

2. All the necessary equipment in place 
before beginning work. See Fig. 14. 

3. Jars, tops and rubbers carefully tested. 

4. Fresh, sound fruits and vegetables. 

5. Plenty of hot water for sterilizer, 
blanching, warming the jars and for pouring 
into packed jars. 

6. Salt or syrup at hand. 

7. Reliable instructions, carefully followed. 

8. Absolute cleanliness. 

Fig. 13. A jar- 
lifter is useful. 


In canning by the Single Period Cold-pack 
method it is important that careful attention 
be given to each detail. Do not undertake 
canning until you have familiarized yourself 
with the various steps, which are as follows: 

1. Vegetables should be 
canned as soon as possible 
after picking; the same day 
is best. Early morning is the 
best time for gathering. Fruits 
should be as fresh as possible. 

2. Before starting work 
have on the stove the boiler 
or other holder in which the 
sterilizing is to be done, a pan 
of boiling water for use in 
blanching, a vessel containing 
water to be used for warming 
several jars at a time, and a 
kettle of boiling water for use 
in filling jars of vegetables; 
or, if canning fruits, the syrup 
to be used in filling the jars. 
Arrange on this working table 
all necessary equipment, including instruc- 
tions. (Fig. 14.) 

3. Test jars and tops. All jars, rubbers 
and tops should be clean and hot, at the 
moment of using. 

4. Wash and grade product according to 
size and ripeness. (Cauliflower should be 
soaked 1 hour in salted water, to remove in- 
sects if any are present. Put berries into a 
colander and wash, by allowing cold water to 
flow over them, to prevent bruising.) 

5. Prepare vegetable or fruit. Remove all 
but an inch of the tops from beets, parsnips 
and carrots and the strings from green beans. 
Pare squash, remove seeds and cut into small 
pieces. Large vegetables should be cut into 
pieces to make close pack possible. Remove 
pits from cherries, peaches and apricots. 

6. Blanch in boiling water or steam as 
directed. Begin to count time when the 
product is immersed. 

7. Cold-dip, but do not allow product to 
stand in cold water at this or any other stage. 

8. Pack in hot jars which rest on cloths 
wrung out in hot water. Fill the jars to within 
]/i to ]A. inch of tops. (In canning lima beans, 
squash, corn, peas, pumpkin and sweet pota- 
toes fill the jars to within 1 inch of the top, as 
these vegetables swell during sterilization. In 
canning berries, to insure a close pack, put a 
2 or 3 inch layer of berries on the bottom of 
the jar and press down gently with a spoon. 
Continue in this manner with other layers un- 
til jar is filled. Fruits cut in half should be 
arranged with pit surface down.) 

9. Add salt and then boiling water to veg- 
etables to cover them. To fruits add hot syrup 
or water. 

10. Place a new wet rubber on jar and put 
top in place. 


Fig. 14. Table arranged conveniently with various articles needed for canning bv the Cold-pack method. 
The picture shows jars, rubbers, knife for removing air bubbles in containers, spoons, jar lifter, wire basket ior 
blanching, knife for paring and coring, book of directions, towels, pan for cold-dipping, alarm clock and salt. 

11. With bail-top jar adjust top bail only, 
leaving lower bail or snap free. With screw- 
top jar screw the top on lightly, using only the 
thumb and little finger. (This partial sealing 
makes it possible for steam generated within 
the jar to escape, and prevents breakage.) 
On vacuum seal jars adjust spring securely. 

12. Place the jars on rack in boiler or 
other sterilizer. If the homemade or com- 
mercial hot-water bath outfit is used, enough 
water should be in the boiler to come at least 
one inch above the tops of the jars, and the 
water, in evaporating, should never be allowed 
vo drop to the level of these tops. In using 
the hot-water bath outfit, begin to count 
sterilizing time when the water begins to 
boil. Water is at the boiling point when it 
is jumping or rolling all over. Water is not 
boiling when bubbles merely form on the 
bottom or when they begin to rise to the top." 
The water must be kept boiling all of the time 
during the period of sterilization. 

13. Consult time-table on page 2 and at 
the end of the required sterilizing period re- 
move the jars from the sterilizer. Place them 
on a wooden rack or on several thicknesses of 
cloth to prevent breakage. Complete the 
sealing of jars. With bail-top jars this is 
done by pushing the snap down (Fig. 15); 
with screw top jars by screwing cover on 

14. Turn the jars upside down as a test for 
leakage and leave them in this position till 
cold. Let them cool rapidly but be sure that 
no draft reaches them as a draft will cause 
breakage. (If there is any doubt that a 
bail-top jar is perfectly sealed a simple test 


From a number of sources it has been 
learned that the severe weather of last 
winter caused considerable loss through 
the freezing of canned goods. To pre- 
vent similar trouble, care should be taken 
to store canned vegetables and fruits 
where they will be protected from freez- 
ing. If the place of storage is not frost- 
proof the jars should be moved to a 
warmer place in severe weather. 

may be made by loosening the top bail and 
lifting the jar by taking hold of the top with 
the fingers. (Fig. 28.) The internal suction 
should hold the top tightly in place when thus 
lifted. If the top conies off put on a new 
wet rubber and sterilize 15 minutes longer 
for vegetables and 5 minutes longer for 
fruits.) With screw-top jars try the tops 
while the jars are cooling, or as soon as they 
have cooled, and, if loose, tighten them by 
screwing on more closely. Vacuum seal jars 
should be placed upright while cooling, and 

Fig. 15. To the left is a bail-top jar partially sealed 
and ready for sterilization. The top bail is snapped 
into place and the lower bail left free. To the right 
is shown the way to complete the seal. 

the clamp removed when the jar is cool. 
Then lift by the top and turn upside down, 
as a test for leakage. 

15. Wash and dry each jar, label and store. 
If storage place is exposed to light, wrap each 
jar in paper, preferably brown, as light will 
either fade or darken the color of products 
canned in glass. The boxes in which jars 
were brought afford good storage. Store in a 
cool, dark place, preferably dry. Exposure 
to mold will cause decay of rubber, allowing 
the leakage of air into jars. Paper wrappings 
prevent mold. 

This Commission publishes a book on "War 
Gardening and the Home Storage of Vege- 
tables," completely covering both subjects. 




Fig. 17 

In the pictures on this and the next page are shown successive steps in canning by the Single Period Cold- 
pack Method. Fig. 16 shows paring and coring with sharp knife. Fig. 17 shows blanching with wire basket. 
FlG. 18 shows blanching with cheesecloth. (Continued at top of opposite page.) 


The addition of 1 level teaspoonful of salt to a jar of vegetables is for quart jars, 
pint jar use V2 teaspoonful. For 2 quart jar use 2 teaspoonfuls. 


Wash, scrape off scales and tough skin. 
With a string bind together enough for one 
jar. Blanch tough ends from 5 to 10 min- 
utes, then turn so that the entire bundle is 
blanched 5 minutes longer. Cold-dip. Re- 
move string. Pack, with tip ends up. Add 
1 level teaspoonful of salt and cover with boil- 
ing water. Put on rubber top and adjust top 
bail or screw top on with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 
With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 min- 
utes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Use only small ones. Wash ami cut off all 
but an inch or two of root and leaves. Blanch 
5 minutes, cold-dip and scrape off skin and 
stems. They may be packed in jar sliced or 
whole. Add 1 level teaspoonful of salt and 
cover with boiling water. Put on rubber and 
top and adjust top bail or screw top on with 
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 90 minutes 
in hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete 
seal and cool. 



With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Young, tender beet tops should be canned 
as greens. 

Cabbage and Brussels Sprouts 

The method is the same as for cauliflower 
except that the vegetables are not soaked 
in salted water. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. 
Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Select small, tender carrots, leave an inch 
or two of stems, wash, blanch 5 minutes and 
cold -dip. Remove stems and scrape off 
skins. Pack whole or in slices, add 1 
level teaspoonful of salt and cover with 
boiling water. Put on rubber and top and 
adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb 
and little finger. Sterilize 90 minutes in 
hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete seal 
and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


' / y 



Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Fig. 24 

After partially sealing jars, place them in hot-water bath. FlG. 11 shows jar being placed in ordinary 
household wash-boiler for sterilizing. FlG. 23 shows the adjustment of cover, with cloth to give tighter fit 
and make it hold the steam. FlG. 24 shows jars being removed. (Continued at bottom of next page.) 



Fig. 19 

Fig. 20 

After blanching, as shown in Figs. 17 and 18, vegetables and fruits are cold-dipped, as shown in Fig. 19. 
In Fig. 20 is shewn the process of filling jar, by use of funnel. Fig. 21 shows the partial sealing of jar. With 
bail-top jar adjust top bail only; with screw top jar screw top on lightly. (Continued at bottom of opposite page.) 


Wash and divide head into small pieces. 
Soak in salted water 1 hour, which will re- 
move insects if any are present. Blanch 3 
minutes, cold-dip and pack in jar. Add 1 
level teaspoonful of salt and cover with boil- 
ing water. Put on rubber and top and adjust 
top bail or screw top on with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 60 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 30 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Canning corn on the cob, except for exhibi- 
tion purposes, is a waste of space, time and 
fuel. For home use remove the husks and 
silk, blanch tender ears 5 minutes, older ears 
10 minutes, cold-dip, and cut from cob. 
Pack lightly to within 1 inch of the top of the 
jar, as corn swells during sterilization. Add 
1 level teaspoonful of salt and cover with boil- 
ing water, put on rubber and top, adjust top 
bail or screw top on with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 
(When canned on cob 1 hour longer of sterili- 
zation is necessary). 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 90 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash until no dirt can be felt in the bottom 
of the pan. Blanch in steam 15 minutes. 
(Mineral matter is lost if blanched in water.) 
Cold-dip, cut in small pieces and pack 
or pack whole. Do not pack too tightly. 
Add 1 level teaspoonful of salt and cover 
with boiling water. Put on rubber and top 
and adjust top bail or screw top on with 
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes 
in hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete 
seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Lima Beans 

Shell. Blanch 5 to 10 minutes. Cold- 
dip, pack in jar, add 1 level teaspoonful of 
salt and cover with boiling water. Put on 
rubber and top, and adjust top bail or screw 
top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 
180 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove 
jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash and remove stems. Blanch 5 to 10 
minutes, cold-dip and pack in jar. Add 1 
level teaspoonful of salt and cover with boiling 

Fie. 26 

Fig. 27 

After removal from hot-water bath jars are inverted to test for leakage (Fig. 25) and left inverted until 
cooled. They should be cooled rapidly, but protected from draft. FlG. 26 shows wrapping jar in brown paper 
to exclude light. V]t;. 27 shows storage on shelves. If shelves are exposed to light, do not neglect wrapping. 




It must not be forgotten that success in canning demands careful attention to every 
detail. No step should be slighted. Follow one set of instructions closely and do not 
attempt to combine two, no matter how good both of them may be. To attempt to 
follow two sets will inevitably cause spoilage. 

The experience of the United States Department of Agriculture during the last five 
years indicates that 75 per cent, of the spoilage has been due to the use of poor rubbers, 
the use of old tops on screw-top jars, and improper sealing resulting from the use of de- 
fective joints, springs and caps. Another fruitful source of trouble is that people some- 
times undertake to can stale or wilted vegetables. No amount of sterilizing will over- 
come staleness. Careless handling is also sure to cause loss. Absolute cleanliness in 
every step is essential. 

In sterilizing care must be exercised to see that the temperature is high enough 
and maintained for the proper length of time. 


water. Put on rubber and top, adjust top bail 
or screw top on with thumb and little finger. 
Sterilize 120 minutes in hot-water bath. Re- 
move jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


The method is the same as for carrots. 

Those which are not fully grown are best 
for canning. Shell, blanch 5 to 10 minutes 
and cold-dip. Pack in jar, add 1 teaspoonful 
of salt and cover with boiling water. If the 
jar is packed too full some of the peas will 
break and give a cloudy appearance to the 
liquid. Put on rubber and top and adjust 
top bail or screw top on with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 180 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Wash, stem and remove seeds 

5 to 10 minutes, cold-dip and 

pack in jar. Add 1 level tea- 
spoonful of salt. Cover with 

boiling water, put on rubber and 

top and adjust top bail or screw 

top on with thumb and little 

finger. Sterilize 120 minutes in 

hot-water bath. Remove jars, 

complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit 

sterilize 60 minutes at 5 to 10 

pounds pressure. 

Place in a hot oven from 6 to 
8 minutes. Peel, remove seeds, 
and pack in flat layers. Do not 
add any liquid . Sterilize 35 minutes 
in hot-water bath. 

thick. Pack in jar and sterilize 120 minutes 
in hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete 
seal and cool. 

(b) Another method is to prepare the 
pieces as in (a), blanch 3 minutes, cold-dip, 
pack in jars and add 1 level teaspoonful of 
salt to each quart jar. Cover with boiling 
water and sterilize as (a). 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash, blanch 5 minutes, cold-dip and 
scrape off skin. It may be packed whole or 
in slices. Add 1 teaspoonful of salt, and 
cover with boiling water. Put on top and 
rubber and adjust top bail or screw top on 
with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 90 
minutes in hot-water Bath. Remove jars, 
complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

String Beans 
Wash and remove ends and strings and 
cut into small pieces if desired. Blanch from 
5 to 10 minutes, depending on 
age. Beans which have been prop- 
erly blanched will bend readily 
without breaking. Cold-dip, pack 
immediately in jar, add 1 level 
teaspoonful salt and cover with 
boiling water. Put on rubber 
and top and adjust top bail or 
screw top on with thumb and 
little finger. Sterilize 120 minutes 
in hot-water bath. Remove jars, 
complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit 
sterilize 60 minutes at 5 to 10 
pounds pressure. 

Summer Squash 
Pare, cut in slices or small pieces 
and blanch 10 minutes. Cold-dip, 
pack in jars, add 1 level tea- 
Fig. 28. A simple test for spoonful of salt, cover with boil- 
proper sealing of bail-top ing water, put on rubber and top 
pumpkin or squash into strips, jars is to loosen top bail and and adjust top bail or screw top 
Peel and remove stringy center ^p withV/ finfers^ °n with thumb and little finger. 
Slice into small pieces and boil until Step No. 14, page 9. Sterilize 120 minutes in hot- 


Pumpkin, Winter Squash 
(a) Remove seed. Cut the 



water bath. Remove jars, complete seal and 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 60 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Take medium sized tomatoes. Wash them, 
blanch \}4 minutes or until skins are loose, 
cold-dip and remove the skins. Pack whole 
in jar, filling the spaces with tomato pulp 
made by cooking large and broken tomatoes 
until done and then straining and adding 1 

level teaspoonful of salt to each quart of the 
pulp. Put on rubber and top and adjust top 
bail or screw top on with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 22 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 15 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Tomatoes may be cut in pieces, packed 
closely into jars and sterilized 25 minutes in 
hot-water bath. If this is done do not add 
any liquid, as the liquid in the tomatoes wil! 
be sufficient. 


For fruits, as well as for vegetables, the 
Single Period Cold-pack method is best. 
With some exceptions, as shown in the table 
on page 2, fruits should be blanched before 
canning. When fruits are intended for table 
use, syrup should be poured over them to fill 
the jars. In canning fruits to be used for 
pie-filling or in cooking, where unsweetened 
fruits are desirable, boiling water is used in- 
stead of syrup, and the sterilization period in 
hot-water bath is thirty minutes. 

In the directions given various grades of 
syrup are mentioned. These syrups are made 
as follows: 

Thin — 1 part sugar to 4 parts water. 

Medium — 1 part sugar to 2 parts water. 

Thick — 1 part sugar to 1 part water. 

Heat the water to boiling, then add the 
sugar gradually, stirring constantly and keep- 
ing the liquid boiling until the sugar is dis- 
solved. Syrup made in this way requires 
little or no skimming. 

Use thin syrup with sweet fruits. Use 
medium syrup with sour fruits. Thick syrup 
is used in candying and preserving. 

Because of the shortage of sugar it is 
important to use substitutes wherever pos- 
sible. A very satisfactory syrup for fruits 
may be made of one part of light corn syrup 
or honey to three parts of water or juice of 
the fruit. Add the honey or corn syrup to 
the liquid and simmer ten minutes. 

Allow two cupfuls of syrup to each quart 
jar of fruit. 


/ Wash, pare, quarter or slice and drop into 
weak salt water. Blanch \ l /2 minutes, cold- 
dip, pack into jar and cover with water or 
thin syrup. Put on rubber and top and 
adjust top bail or screw top on with thumb 
and little finger. Sterilize for 20 minutes in 
hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete seal 
and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 8 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Apples shrink during sterilization and for 
this reason economy of space is obtained by 
canning them in the form of sauce instead of 
in quarters or slices. In canning sauce fill 
the jars with the hot sauce and sterilize 12 
minutes in hot-water bath. 


Use only ripe fruit. Wash, cut in half and 
remove pit. Blanch 1 to 2 minutes. Pack in 
jar and cover with medium syrup. Put on 
rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw 
top on with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 
16 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove 
jars, complete seal, cool and store. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Wash, pack closely and cover with medium 
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust 

top bail or screw on top with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 
With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Blueberries Loganberries 

Currants Raspberries 

The method is the same as for blackberries. 
Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water bath. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Cherries should be pitted before being 
canned. Pack in jar and cover with medium 
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust top 
bail or screw on top with thumb and little 
finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Fruit Juices 

See "Winter Jelly Making" on page 17. 


Peel and drop into salt water to prevent 
discoloration. Blanch \yi minutes. Pack in 
jar, whole or in quarters, and cover with thin 
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust 
top bail or screw on top with thumb and little 



finger. Sterilize 20 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 
A slice of lemon may be added to the con- 
tents of each jar for flavor. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 8 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Blanch in boiling water long enough to 
loosen skins. Some peaches do not peel 
readily even if dipped in boiling water. In 
such cases omit dipping in boiling water and 
pare them. Cold dip and remove skins. Cut 
in half and remove stones. Pack in jars and 
cover with thin syrup. Put on rubber and 
top and adjust top bail or screw on top with 
thumb and little finger. Sterilize 16 minutes 
in hot-water bath. Remove jars, complete 
seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash, pack in jar and cover with medium 
syrup. Put on rubber and top and adjust 
top bail or screw on top with thumb and 
little finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot-water 
bath. Remove jars, complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 

Pare, remove eyes, shred or cut into slices 
or small pieces, blanch 3 to 5 minutes, accord- 
ing to size of pieces, and pack in jar. Cover 

with medium syrup. Put on rubber and top 
and adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb 
and little finger. Sterilize 30 minutes in hot- 
water bath. Remove jars, complete seal and 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


The method is the same as for apples. 
They may be canned with apples. Sterilize 
20 minutes in hot-water bath 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 8 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash and cut into short lengths. Cover 
with boiling water or thin syrup. Put on 
rubber and top and adjust top bail or screw 
on top with thumb and little finger. Sterilize 
20 minutes in hot-water bath. Remove jars, 
complete seal and cool. 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 15 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


Wash and pack closely in jar. Cover with 
medium syrup, put on rubber and top and 
adjust top bail or screw on top with thumb 
and little finger. Sterilize 16 minutes in hot- 
water bath. Remove jars, complete seal and 

With Steam Pressure Outfit sterilize 10 
minutes at 5 to 10 pounds pressure. 


In sections where there is a large yield of 
fruits or vegetables canning in tin in the home 
is practical. This is especially true when 
the goods are to be sold, as tin cans are more 
easily transported than glass containers. Tin 
cans of standard sizes may be purchased in 
sanitary or cap and hole type. The No. 2 
can is most satisfactory for canned vege- 
tables and small fruits. No. 3 is used for 
peaches, pears, and tomatoes. Enameled 
tins should be used when canning berries, 
plums, cherries, beets, pumpkins, and greens. 

To can in tin special equipment is needed. 

This includes a capping steel, a tipping cop- 
per, fire pot for heating tools, flux, sal am- 
moniac and wire solder. Sanitary cans re- 
quire a special machine for sealing, which 
eliminates the use of all other equipment. 

Fruits and vegetables are prepared as 
shown in the directions given for the cold- 
pack method on pages 8 and 9. The only 
variation is that after the product is packed 
the cap is soldered and cans are then put 
into the sterilizer and exhausted from two to 
fifteen minutes, depending upon the kind 
of contents. Exhausting is necessary as it 


Wide-spread attention has been attracted by the statement that vegetables canned 
by the Single Period Cold-pack Method had caused cases of poisoning technically 
known as botulism. It has been declared that the bacillus botulinus, which produces 
botulism, was a menace to all users of vegetables canned by this method. Such state- 
ments were obviously circulated by those seeking to discourage American food-thrift. 
Expert research workers of the National War Garden Commission and the United 
States Department of Agriculture agree that there is no danger of botulism from eating 
vegetables which have been canned by carefullv following the directions issued by the 
Commission or the Department. CARE MUST BE TAKEN, HOWEVER, TO 
FOLLOW DIRECTIONS EXPLICITLY. Cooking canned vegetables for 10 minutes 
at the boiling point, after opening the jar for use, will remove any possible danger. 
This applies also to Apricots and Pears. 




J/ Dg 

Fig. 29 

Fig. 30 

Fig. 31 

Canning in Tin. Fig. 29. Wiping juice and syrup from groove. Fig. 30. Applying cap and wiping groove 
with brush dipped in soldering fluid. Fig. 31. Placing clean hot capping steel on can and melting solder into groove. 

drives out the air which will cause the can to 
bulge, giving it the same appearance as when 
spoilage has occurred. After exhausting, 
the cans are removed from the sterilizer and 
the vent hole is closed. The cans are re- 
turned to the sterilizer and sterilized, follow- 
ing the time-table given on page 2. At the 
end of the sterilization period remove cans 
and plunge immediately into cold water. 
Do not stack cans closely until cold. 

After packing, label each can by writing 
the name of contents on the side. If in- 
tended for sale affix a label just before shipping. 
Do not allow paste to touch the can, as it 
will cause the tin to rust. The label should 
be large enough to encircle the can and over- 
lap at the edges. Put the paste on one of the 
overlapping edges and draw label tightly 
around can, pasting the two edges together. 

To seal, wipe top of can clean and dry 
and then put the cap in place, applying flux 
carefully to the groove. Do not allow the 
flux to enter can, as it is poisonous. Hold 
the cap in place with the center rod and lower 
the hot capping iron squarely and firmly on 
the solder rim of the cap, or melt a little 

solder in the groove by holding the solder wire 
against the lower part of the capping steel. 
Revolve the iron to melt the solder and seal 
the can. Lift the capping iron with a sudden 
twist, holding the center rod in place. When 
solder has hardened remove center rod. 

To tip, dry top of can and apply flux to 
the hole in the center of the cap. Hold the 
solder in the left hand, brush it with the hot 
tipping iron so only a bead will drop and 
close hole. 

The steels must be kept clean and well 
coated with solder. To do this, if capping 
steel is rusty, clean with a file, brick or emery 
paper. To tin the capping steel heat and 
dip in flux, then heat again until red hot and 
dip in sal ammoniac and solder until well 
coated. Sal ammoniac is made by mixing 
equal parts of dry sal ammoniac with solder 
chips. Coat the tipping copper in same way. 

Flux is made as follows: To muriatic acid 
add strips of zinc until no more will dissolve. 
Strain through a cloth and when ready to use 
add an equal quantity of water. Flux which 
is used for tinning the tools should not be 
used for soldering. 


/ u ^ 

Fig. 32 

Fig. 33 

Fig. 34 

Canning in Tin, continued. Fig. 31. Turning steel to distribute solder. Fig. 33. Raising steel to allow 
solder to harden after pressing down on center rod. Fig. 34. Sealing with drop of solder after exhausting can 
and wiping vent hole. 




To be satisfactory, jelly must be made from 
fruit juice containing pectin and acid. Pectin 
is a substance in the fruit which is soluble 
in hot water and which, when cooked with 
sugar and acid, gives, after cooling, the right 
consistency to jelly. 

Fruits to be used should be sound, just ripe 
or slightly under-ripe, and gathered but a 
short time. Wash them, remove stems and 
cut large fruits into pieces. 
With juicy fruits add just 
enough water to prevent 
burning while cooking. In 
using fruits which are not 
juicy cover them with water. 
Cook slowly until the fruits 
are soft. Strain through a 
bag made of flannel or two 
thicknesses of cheesecloth or 
similar material. 


Three or more extractions of juice may be 
made from fruit. When the first extraction 
is well drained cover the pulp with water and 
let it simmer 30 minutes. Drain, and test 
juice for pectin. For the third extraction 
proceed in the same manner. The juice re- 
sulting from the second and third extractions 
may be combined. If the third extraction 
shows much pectin a fourth extraction may 
be made. The first pectin 
test should be saved for com- 
parison with the others. 

If the second, third or 
fourth extraction of juice is 
found thinner than the first 
extraction, boil it until it is 
as thick as the first, then 
add the sugar or substitute 
called for. 


To determine if the juice 
contains pectin, boil 1 table- 
spoonful and cool. To this add 1 table- 
spoonful of grain or wood alcohol and mix, 
gently rotating the glass. Let stand for a 
while. If a solid mass — which is pectin- 
collects, this indicates that in making jelly 
one part of sugar or sugar substitute (corn 
syrup or honey) should be used to one part 
of juice. If the pectin collects in two or three 
masses, use 2 i to }£ as much sugar or sub- 
stitute as juice. If it collects in several 
small particles use half. If the presence of 
pectin is not shown as described, it should be 
supplied by the addition of the juice of 
slightly under-ripe fruits, such as sour apples, 
currants, crab-apples, green grapes, green 
gooseberries or wild cherries. 

Measure the juice and sugar or substitute. 
Sugar may be spread on a platter and heated. 
Do not let it scorch. When the juice begins 
to boil add the sugar or substitute. Boil 
rapidly. This is important. The jelly point 
is reached when the juice drops as one 
mass from the side of a spoon or when two 
drops run together and fall as one from the 
side of the spoon. Skim the juice, pour into 
sterilized glasses and cool as quickly as pos- 
sible. Currant and green grape juice require 
8 to 10 minutes boiling to reach the jelly 
point while all other juices require from 20 
to 30 minutes. 

When the jelly is cold pour over the sur- 
face a layer of hot paraffin. A toothpick 
run around the edge while the paraffin is still 
hot will give a better seal. Protect the par- 
affin with a cover of metal or paper. 

Fig. 35. Straining fruit juice 

The test for pectin is de- 
sirable, but it is not essential. 
A large percentage of house- 
wives make jelly without this test, and satis- 
factory results may be obtained without it if 
care is taken to follow directions and to use 
the right fruits. For the inexperienced jelly 
maker the safe rule is to confine jelly-making 
to the fruits which are ideal for the purpose. 
These include currants, sour apples, crab- 
apples, under-ripe grapes, quinces, rasp- 
berries, blackberries, blueberries, wild cher- 
ries, and green gooseberries. These contain 
pectin and acid in sufficient quantities. 

In making jelly without the alcohol test, 
with the juice of currants and under-ripe 
grapes use 1 cup of sugar to 1 cup of juice. 
With raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, 
sour apples, crab-apples, quinces, wild 
cherries and green goosebe.ries use $i cup 
of sugar to 1 cup of juice. This applies to 
the first extraction of juice and to the later 
extractions when they have been boiled to 
the consistency of the first extraction. 

Satisfactory jelly may be made by using 
y 2 to 34 cup corn syrup or honey to 1 cup of 
fruit juice, following the general directions 
for jelly making. The proportion of sugar 
substitute will depend upon the acidity and 
pectin content of the fruit juice. On account 
of the water content of the corn syrup the 
juice will require a little longer cooking before 
the jelly point is reached. 
' Fruits which contain pectin but lack suffi- 
cient acid are peach, pear, quince, sweet 
apple and guava. With these acid may be 
added by the use of juice of sour apples, 
crab-apples or under-ripe grapes. 

Strawberries and cherries have acidity but 



lack pectin. The pectin may be supplied by 
the addition of the juice of sour apples, crab- 
apples or under-ripe grapes. 


Wash, remove stems, and with the larger 
fruits cut into quarters. Put into a saucepan 
and cover with water. Allow to simmer until 
the fruit is tender. Berries require the addi- 
tion of only a small amount of water. A 
double boiler is excellent for heating a small 
quantity. Put into a bag to drain, after 
wringing the bag out in scalding water. If 
desired, test juice for pectin as described. 
Measure juice and sugar or syrup in 
proportions indicated by the test for pectin or as 
directed under "Jelly Making Without Test." 
Add the sugar or syrup when the juice begins 
to boil. The sugar or syrup may be heated 
before being added. This avoids chilling 
the juice. When the boiling juice reaches 
the jelly point as shown on page 16, skim 
and pour into sterilized glasses. 


Fruit juices may be canned and made into 
jelly as wanted during the winter. The use 

of sugar is not necessary until the actual 
jelly making is undertaken. 

To prepare for canning pour the juice into 
sterilized bottles or jars. Put into hot-water 
bath, with the water reaching to the neck of 
the containers. Allow to simmer 20 to 30 min- 
utes. If jars are used half seal them during 
the simmering and complete seal when removed 
from the sterilizer. Put absorbent cotton 
into the necks of bottles and when the bottles 
are taken from the bath put in corks, forcing 
the cotton into the neck. Corks should first 
be boiled and dried to prevent shrinking. 
They may also be boiled in paraffin to make 
them air-tight. After corking the bottles 
apply melted paraffin to the tops with a 
brush, to make an air-tight seal. Each bottle 
should be labeled. In making jelly from 
these juices during the winter follow the 
"General Directions for Jelly Making." 

Any fruit juice may be bottled following 
the above method and used for beverages and 
for flavoring desserts. Store jelly and bottled 
juices in a cool, dark, dry place. 

The need for conserving sugar makes winter 
jelly making an especially useful form of con- 
servation in these days of shortage. 


Fruit butters may be made from good 
sound fruits or the sound portions of fruits 
which are wormy or have been bruised. 
Wash, pare and remove seeds if there are any. 
Cover with water and cook 3 or 4 hours at a 
low temperature, stirring often, until the 
mixture is of the consistency of thick apple 
sauce. Add sugar, syrup or honey to taste 
when the boiling is two-thirds done. Spices 
may be added to suit the taste when the 
boiling is completed. If the pulp is coarse 
it should be put through a wire sieve or 
colander. Pour the butter into sterilized jar, 
put on rubber and cover and adjust top bail. 
Put into a container having a cover and false 
bottom. Pour in an inch or so of water and 
sterilize quart jar or smaller jar 5 minutes 
after the steam begins to escape. Remove, 
push snap in place and cool. 

Apple Butter with Cider 
Four quarts of swe t or sterilized cider 
should be boiled down to 2 quarts. To this 
add 4 quarts of apples peeled and cut in small 
pieces. If the texture of the apples is coarse 
they should be boiled and put through a 
strainer before being added to the cider. 
Boil this mixture until the cider does not 
separate from the pulp. When two-thirds 
done add one pound of sugar, syrup or honey. 
One-half teaspoonful each of cinnamon, all- 
spice and cloves may be added. Pour into 
sterilized jars and sterilize 5 minutes in steam. 

Apple and pear butter may be made by 
following the directions for apple butter with 
cider but omitting the cider. 

Peach Butter 

Dip peaches in boiling water long enough 
to loosen the skins. Dip in cold water, peel 
and stone them. If peaches do not peel 
readily when dipped in boiling water, omit 
dipping and pare them. Mash and cook them 
without adding any water. Add half as much 
sugar, syrup or honey as pulp and cook until 
thick. Pour into sterilized jars and sterilize 5 
minutes in steam. 

Plum butter may be made following the 
directions for peach butter. 

Apple Butter with Grape Juice 

To every 4 quarts of strained apple sauce 
add 1 pint of grape juice, 1 cup of brown 
sugar, syrup or honey and % teaspoonful of 
salt. Cook slowly, stirring often, until of the 
desired thickness. When done stir in 1 tea- 
spoonful of cinnamon, pack in hot jars and 
sterilize 5 minutes in steam. 

Dried Peach Butter 

Soak dried peaches over night. Cook 
slowly until tender. To each 2 pounds of 
dried peaches add 1 quart of canned peaches 
and l?4 pounds of sugar, syrup or honey. If 
a fine texture is desired, strain pulp through a 
colander. Cook slowly, stirring often, until 
thick. Pack in hot jars and sterilize 5 minutes 
in steam. 



Drying vegetables and fruits for winter use is one of the vital national 
needs. As a national need it becomes a patriotic duty. As a patriotic 
duty it should be done in every family. 

Failure to prepare vegetables and fruits for winter use by Drying is one of 
the worst examples of American extravagance. During the summer nature 
provides an over-abundance. This year, with the planting of 5,285,000 home 
food gardens, stimulated by the National War Garden Commission and the 
United States Department of Agriculture, this abundance will be especially 
large. The excess supply is not meant to go to waste. The over-abundance 
of the summer should be made the normal supply of the winter. The indi- 
vidual family should conduct Drying on a liberal scale. In no other way can 
there be assurance that America's food supply will meet our own needs. In 
no other way, surely, can we answer the enormous demands made upon us 
for furnishing food for our European Allies. 


Winter buying of vegetables and fruits is 
costly. It means that you pay transporta- 
tion, cold-storage and commission merchants' 
charges and profits. Summer is the time of 
lowest prices. Summer, therefore, is the time 
to buy for winter use. 

Every pound of food products grown 
this year will be needed to combat Food 
Famine. The loss that can 
be prevented, the money 
saving that can be effected 
and the transportation relief 
that can be brought about 
make it essential that every 
American household should 
make vegetable and fruit 
Drying a part of its program 
of Food Thrift. The results can be gained 
in no other way. 

Vegetable and fruit Drying have been 
little practiced for a generation or more. 
Its revival on a general scale is the pur- 
pose of this Manual. There is no desire 
to detract from the importance of canning 
operations. Drying must not be regarded 
as taking the place of the preservation of 
vegetables and fruits in tins and glass jars. 
It must be viewed as an important adjunct 
thereto. Drying is important and economical 
in every home, whether on the farm, in the 
village, in the town, or in the city. For city 

Fig. 1. Carrots cut lengthwise 

dwellers it has the special advantage that 
little storage space is required for the dried 
product. One hundred pounds of some fresh 
vegetables will reduce to 10 pounds in dry- 
ing without loss of food value or much of 
the flavor. 

This year's need for vegetable and fruit 
Drying is given added emphasis by the 
shortage of tin for the man- 
ufacture of cans. This con- 
dition has created an un- 
usual demand for glass jars. 
For this year, therefore, Dry- 
ing is of more than normal 
importance. Dried products 
can be stored in receptacles 
that could not be used for 
This is excellent conservation. 



A strong point in connection with vege- 
table and fruit Drying is the ease with 
which it may be done. The process is simple. 
The cost is slight. In every home the neces- 
sary outfit, in its simplest form, is already at 
hand. Effective Drying may be done on 
plates or dishes placed in the oven, with the 
oven door partially open. It may be done 
on the back of the kitchen stove, with these 
same utensils, while the oven is being used 
for baking. It may also be done on sheets of 



paper or lengths of muslin spread in the sun 
and protected from insects and dust. 

Apparatus for home Drying on a larger 
scale may be made at home or bought at 
small cost. Still larger equipment may be 
bought for community drying operations in 
which a group of families combine for co- 
operative work, at a school or other con- 

FlG. 2. Potatoes prepared by use of meat chopper. 

venient center. This latter is especially rec- 
ommended as giving the use of the most im- 
proved outfits at slight cost to the individual 
family. See "Community Work," page 3. 

Best results are obtained by rapid drying, 
but care must be taken not to let the tem- 
perature rise above the limit specified in the 
directions and table. 

One of the chief essentials in Drying is free 
circulation of air, in order that the moist air 
may escape and dry air take its place. 


For home Drying satisfactory results are 
obtained by any one of three principal 
methods. These are: 

1. Sun Drying. 

2. Drying by Artificial Heat. 

3. Drying by Air-blast. (With an electric 
or other motor fan.) 

These methods may be combined to good 

Fig. 3. Apples peeled and sliced for drying. 


Sun Drying has the double advantage of 
requiring no expense for fuel and of freedom 
from danger of overheating. For sun Dry- 
ing of vegetables and fruits the simplest form 
is to spread the slices or pieces on sheets of 
plain paper or lengths of muslin nailed to 
strips of wood and expose them to the sun. 
Muslin is to be preferred if there is danger of 
sticking. Trays should be used for large 
quantities. Sun Drying requires bright, 

hot days and a breeze. Once or twice a day 
the product should be turned or stirred and 
the dry pieces taken out. The drying prod- 
uct should be covered with cheesecloth 
tacked to a frame for protection from dust 
and flying insects. Care must be taken to 
provide protection from rain, dew and moths. 
During rains and just before sunset the prod- 
ucts should be taken indoors for protection. 


To make a tray cheaply for use in sun 
drying, take strips of lumber three-quarters 
of an inch thick and 2 inches wide for the 
sides and ends. To form the bottom, laths 
should be nailed to these strips, with spaces 
of one-eighth of an inch between laths to 
permit air circulation.' A length of 4 feet, 
corresponding to the standard lengths of 
laths, is economical. Nail 3 strips across 
the bottom in the opposite direction from 
the laths to prevent warping and to allow 
space when the trays are stacked. The 

Fig. 4. Small outdoor drier, easily made at home. 
It has glass top, sloping for exposure to sun. Tray 
is shown partly projecting, to indicate construction. 

trays should be of uniform size in order that 
they may be -stacked together for conve- 
nience in handling. Never put trays directly 
on the ground. They should rest on supports 
a few feet above the ground and should face 
the south or southwest so as to receive the 
sun's rays the longest possible time. 

A small homemade Sun Drier, easily 
constructed (Fig. 4), is made of light strips 
of wood, a sheet of glass, a small amount of 
galvanized wire screen and some cheese- 
cloth. A convenient size for the glass top 
is 18 by 24 inches. To hold the glass make 
a light wooden frame of strips of wood ]4 
inch thick and 1 inch wide. This frame should 
have legs of material 1 by \]4. inches, with a 
length of 12 inches for the front legs and 18 
inches for those in the rear. This will cause 
the top to slope, which aids in circulation of 
air and gives direct exposure to the rays of the 
sun. As a tray support, nail a strip of wood 
to the legs on each of the four sides, about 



4 inches below the top framework and sloping 
parallel with the top. The tray is made of 
thin strips of wood about 2 inches wide and 
has a galvanized wire screen bottom. There 
will be a space of about 2 inches between the 
top edges of the tray and the glass top of the 
Drier, to allow for circulation. Protect both 
sides, the bottom and the front end of the 
Drier with cheesecloth tacked on securely and 
snugly, to exclude insects and dust with- 
out interfering with circulation. At the 
rear end place a cheesecloth curtain tacked 
at the top but swinging free below, to allow 
the tray to be moved in and out. Brace 

Fig. 5. Commercial drier for use in oven. 

the bottom of this curtain with a thin strip 
of wood, as is done in window shades. This 
curtain is to be fastened to the legs by buttons 
when the tray is in place. 


Drying by artificial heat is done in the oven 
or on top of a cookstove or rang , in trays 
suspended over the stove or in a specially 
constructed drier built at home or purchased. 

When drying with artificial heat a ther- 
mometer must be used. This should be 
placed in the drier and frequently observed. 

The simplest form of Oven Drying is to 
place small quantities of foodstuffs on plates 
in a slow oven. In this way leftovers and 
other bits of food may be saved for winter 
use with slight trouble and dried while the 
top of the stove is being used. This is 
especially effective for sweet corn. A few 
sweet potatoes, apples or peas, or even a 
single turnip, may be dried and saved. To 
keep the heat from being too great leave the 
oven door partially open. For oven use a 
simple tray may be made of galvanized wire 
screen of convenient size, with the edges 

bent up for an inch or two on each side. 
At each corner this tray should have a leg 
an inch or two in length, to hold it up from 

Fig. 6. Commercial drier which may be placed on 
top of cookstove or suspended over a lamp. 

the bottom of the oven and permit circula- 
tion of air around the product. 

An oven drier which can be bought at a 
low price is shown in Fig. 5. 


An effective Drier for use over a stove or 
range may be made easily at home. Such 
a Drier is shown in Fig. 9. For the frame 
use strips of wood ^-inch thick and 2 inches 
wide. The trays or shelves are made of 
galvanized wire screen of small mesh tacked 
to the supports; or separate trays, sliding on 
strips attached to the framework, are de- 
sirable. This Drier may be suspended from 
the ceiling over the kitchen stove or range, 
or over an oil, 
gasoline, or gas 
stove, and it 
may be used 
while cooking is 
being done. If 
an oil stove is 
used there must 
be a tin or galva- 
nized iron bot- 
tom 4 inches 
below the lowest 
tray, to prevent 
the fumes of the 
oil from reaching 
and passing 
through the ma- 
terial which is 
to be dried, and FlG> 7- Commercial drier for use 
to distribute the on stove, 

heat. A bottom of this kind may be easily 
attached to any Drier, either home-made or 
commercial. A framework crane as shown in 
Fig. 9 makes it possible for this Drier to 
be swung aside when not in use. 

In Fig. 8 is shown another form of Home- 
made Cookstove Drier, more pretentious 
than that shown in Fig. 9, but still easily 
and cheaply made. A good size for this is: 
base, 16 by 24 inches; height, 36 inches. The 
lower part or supporting framework, 6 inches 
high, is made of galvanized sheet iron, 



^-^r^te 1 ^— 






1 ■ > rj- 



fe;;':!' ;: 


%' -'' "'-'J ' > 








slightly flaring toward the bottom, and with 
two ventilating holes in each of the four 
sides. The frame, which rests on this base, 
is made of strips of wood 1 or l}4 inches wide. 

Fig. 8. Home-made drier of galvanized iron, 
for use on stove. 

Wooden strips, 1)4 inches wide, and 3 inches 
apart, serve to brace the sides and furnish 
supports for the trays. 

In a Drier of the dimensions given there 
is room for eight trays. The sides, top and 
back are of galvanized iron or tin sheets, 
tacked to the framework, although thin 

Fig. 9. Home-made drier with swinging crane. 

strips of wood may be used instead of the 
metal. Small hinges and thumb-latch are 
provided for the door. Galvanized sheet 
iron, with numerous small holes in it, is 
used for making the bottom of the Drier. 
To prevent direct heat from coming in con- 

tact with the product, and also to distribute 
the heat by radiation, a piece of galvanized 
sheet iron is placed 2 inches above the bot.- 
tom. This piece is 3 inches shorter and 3 
inches narrower than the bottom and rests 
on two wires fastened to the sides. 

The trays are made of wooden frames of 
1-inch strips, to which is tacked galvanized 
wire screen. Each tray should be 3 inches 
shorter than the Drier and enough narrower 
to allow it to slide easily on the supports in 
being put in or taken out. 

In placing the trays in the Drier push the 
lower one back as far as it will go, leaving 
a 3-inch space in front. Place the next tray 
even with the front, leaving the space at 
the back. Alternate all the trays in this 
way, to facilitate the circulation of the 
heated air. It is well to have a ventilating 
opening, 6 by 2 inches, in the top of the 
Drier to discharge 
moisture. The 
trays should be 
shifted during the 
drying process, to 
procure uniform- 
ity of drying. 

One of the sim- 
plest forms of 
homemade Drier FlG " ia Commercial drier, 
is a tray with bottom of galvanized wire 
screen, suspended over stove or range, as 
shown in Fig. 12. 

Commercial Driers 

Cookstove Driers are in the market m 
several types. One of these, shown in Fig. 
7, has a series of trays in a framework, 
forming a compartment. This is placed on 
top of the stove. A similar drier is shown 
in Fig. 10. Another, shown in Fig. 6, 
is a shallow metal box to be filled with 
water, and so constructed that one end may 
rest on the back of the stove and the other on 
a prop reaching to the floor, or it may be 
suspended over a lamp. 

Commercial Driers having their own fur- 
naces may be bought at prices ranging from 
$24 to $120. This type is pictured in Fig. 
11. Some of these, in the smaller sizes, may 
be bought without furnaces, and used on the 
top of the kitchen stove, as Fig. 7. The cost 
is from $16 upwards. 


The use of an electric fan is an effective 
means of Drying. Fig. 15 shows how this 
household article is used. A motor fan run 
by kerosene or alcohol .'•erves the same pur- 
pose. Sliced vegetables or fruits are placed 
on tray ; and the fan placed close to one end 
of the box holding the trays, with the current 



Fi<;. 11. Commercial drier 
with furnace. 

directed along the trays, lengthwise. Insects 
must be kept out by the use of cheesecloth 
or similar material. Drying by this proc- 
ess may be done 
in twenty-four 
hours or less. 
With sliced string 
beans and shred- 
ded sweet pota- 
toes a few hours 
are sufficient, if 
the air is dry. Re- 
arrange the trays 
after a few hours, 
as the drying 
will be more 
rapid nearest the 

As artificial 
heat is not used 
in fan drying it 
is important to blanch or steam the vege- 
tables for the full specified time. It is also 
necessary that all fan-dried products be 
heated in an oven to 180° F. for 10 or 15 
minutes before storing. 


As a general rule vegetables or fruits, 
for Drying, must be cut into slices or shreds, 
with the skin removed. In using artificial 
heat be careful to start at a comparatively 
low temperature and gradually increase. De- 
tails as to the proper scale of temperatures 
for various vegetables and fruits are given in 
the directions in this Manual and in the time- 
table on page 28. To be able to gauge the 
heat accurately a thermometer must be used. 
An oven thermometer may be bought at slight 
cost. If the thermometer is placed in a glass 
of salad oil the true temperature of the oven 
may be obtained. • 

Fig. 12. Simple tray drier made at home. 

In the detailed instructions on pa<j,es 25, 26, 27 
and 28, the temperatures used are Fahrenheit. 
The temperatures indicated are for Drying by 
artificial heat. 

The actual time required for Drying can- 
not be given, and the person in charge must 

exercise judgment on this point. A little 
experience will make it easy to determine 
when products are sufficiently dried. When 
first taken from the Drier vegetables should be 
rather brittle, and fruits rather leathery and 
pliable. One method of determining whether 
fruit is dry enough is to squeeze a handful, 
if the fruit separates when the hand is opened, 
it is dry enough. Another way is to press a 

Electric range, useful for drying. 

single piece; if no moisture comes to the sur- 
face the piece is sufficiently dry. Berries are 
dry enough if they stick to the hand but do 
not crush when squeezed. 


A sharp kitchen knife will serve every 
purpose in slicing and cutting vegetables 
and fruits for Drying if no other device is 
at hand. The thickness of the slices should 
be from an eighth to a quarter of an inch. 
Whether sliced or cut into strips the pieces 
should be small so as to dry quickly. They 
should not, however, be so small as to make 
them hard to handle or to keep them from 
being used to advantage in preparing dishes 
for the table such as would be prepared from 
fresh products. 

Food choppers, crout slicers or rotary 
sheers may be used 
to prepare food for 

Vegetables and 
fruits for Drying 
should be fresh, 
mature and in prime 
condition for eating. 
As a general rule 
vegetables will dry 
better if cut into 
small pieces with the 
skins removed. 
Berries arc dried 
whole. Apples, Fig. 14. Motor-fan, run 
, : bv kerosene nr alcohol. 

quinces, peaches ami 

pears dry better if cut into rings or quarters. 
Cleanliness is imperative. Knives and slicing 



devices must be carefully cleansed before and 
after use. A knife that is not bright and 
clean will discolor the product on which it 
is used and this should be avoided. 


Blanching is desirable for successful 

vegetable Drying, 
thorough cleansing, 

Blanching gives more 
removes objectionable 

Fig. IS. Series of. trays enclosed in wall-board 
box, for use with electric fan. 

odors and flavors, kills protoplasm and 
softens and loosens the fiber, allowing quicker 
and more uniform evaporation of the mois- 
ture, stops destructive chemical changes, 
and gives better color. It is done by placing 
the vegetables in a piece of cheesecloth, a 
wire basket or other porous container and 
plunging them into boiling water. A more 
desirable way is to blanch in steam. For 
small quantities a pail or deep kettle is ser- 
viceable. A false bottom raised an inch or 
more is necessary. Upon this rests a wire 
basket or cheesecloth filled with the prepared 
vegetables. The water should be just below 
the false bottom and be boiling vigorously 
when the products are put in. Cover with a 
tight-fitting cover. Keep the water boiling 
during the blanching period. For larger 

Fig. 16. Meat chopper for preparing vegetables. 

quantities a wash-boiler partially filled with 
water is convenient. Bricks set on end or a 
wooden frame raised a few inches above 
the water make good supports for the con- 

Do not continue blanching longer than the 
prescribed time as some of the valuable 
constitutents will dissolve out, the color will 
be destroyed and the starch will be partially 
cooked to a paste. 

The time required is short and varies with 
different vegetables. For the proper time 
in each case consult the directions given for 
Drying on pages 25, 26, 27 and 28 and the 
time-table on page 28. 

After blanching, drain to remove moisture 
and arrange on trays. 


In addition to exercising great care to 
protect vegetables and fruits from insects 
during the Drying process, precautions should 
be taken with the finished product to prevent 
the hatching of eggs that may have been 
deposited. One measure that is useful is to 
subject the dried material to a heat of 180° 
F. for from 5 to 10 minutes. By the applica- 
tion of this heat the eggs will be killed. Be 
careful not to apply heat long enough to 
damage the product. Store as soon as re- 
moved from the oven. 


The word "conditioning" as used in con- 
nection with drying vegetables and fruits 
simply means "thorough drying." It indicates 
the after treatment of products on their 
removal from the drying trays. 

Put the dried products in bins, boxes, or, 
if the quantity 
Once a day for 
a period of ten 
days to two 
weeks, stir thor- 
oughly or pour 
from one box to 
another. The 
should be in a clean, dry room, and pro- 
tected from light and insects. Shutters and 
screens at the window are desirable. Other- 
wise protect the dried food by spreading 
clean cloths over it. If any part of the 
material is found to be moist, after this pro- 
cess, return it to the drier for a short time. 
When for several days no change in Jthe 
moisture content has been noticed, and 
therefore no extra drying has been necessary, 
the products are ready to be stored. 

Properly conditioned products can be stored 
without danger of spoiling, because spores and 
fungi cannot begin growth if there is uniform 
freedom from moisture on the surface. 


Fig. 17. Croat sliccr. 



Fig. 18. Vegetable and fruit 


Of importance equal to proper Drying is 
the proper packing and storage of the finished 
product. With the scarcity of tins and the 
high prices of glass jars it is recommended 
that other containers be used. Those easily 
available are baking-powder cans and similar 
covered tins, pasteboard boxes having tight- 
fitting covers, strong paper bags, and patented 

paraffin paper 
boxes, which 
may be bought 
in quantities at 
low cost. 

A paraffin con- 
t a i n e r of the 
type used by 
oyster dealers 
for the delivery 
of oysters will be 
found inexpen- 
sive and easily handled. If using this, or a 
baking-powder can or similar container, after 
filling adjust the cover closely. For storage 
on a larger scale use closely built wooden 
boxes with well-fitted lids. Line each box 
with paraffin paper in several layers. The 
paper should cover the top of the contents. 

It is essential that the container should 
exclude light and insects but it should not be 
air-tight. Products stored in air-tight con- 
tainers suffer damage through moisture which 
escapes from the product and condenses in 
the package. 

If a paper bag is used, the top should be 
twisted, doubled over and tied with a string. 
Another good precau- 
tion is to store bags 
within an ordinary 
lard pail or can or 
other tin vessel hav- 
ing a fairly close-fit- 
ting cover. 

The products 
should be stored in 
a warm, dry place, 
well ventilated and 
protected from rats, 
mice and insects. An 
attic or upstairs- 
room which is warmed 
by pipes or flues pass- 
ing through makes a 
very satisfactory 
place. Shelves near 
a furnace also make a suitable storage place. 
In sections where the air is very moist, 
especial care must be used. The containers 
should be opened occasionally and if any 
moisture has been taken up the contents 
should be placed in the oven until dry. 

Fig. 19. Slicing corn. 

It is good practice to use small containers 
so that it may not be necessary to leave the 
contents exposed long after opening before use. 

For convenience label all packages. 

Before storing products prepared by sun 
drying, artificial heat must be applied to 
destroy possible insect eggs. To do this place 
the products in the oven, spread in thin 

Fig. 20. Arranging vegetables or fruits on trays. 

layers, and allow them to remain until the 
temperature reaches 180° F. as indicated by 
a thermometer inside partially open oven. 


In preparing dried vegetables and fruits 
for use the first process is to restore the 
water which has been dried out of them. 
All dried foods require soaking. After soak- 
ing the dried products will have a better 
flavor if cooked in a covered utensil at a low 
temperature for a long time. Dried products 
should be prepared and served as fresh prod- 
ucts are prepared and served. They should 
be cooked in the water in which they have 
been soaked, as this utilizes all of the mineral 
salts, which would otherwise be wasted. 

There can be no definite rule for the amount 
of water required for soaking dried products 
when they are to be used, as the quantity of 
water evaporated in the drying process varies 
with different vegetables and fruits. As a 
general rule from 3 to 4 cups of water will be 
required for 1 cup of dried material. 

In preparing for use, peas, beans, spinach 
and like vegetables should be boiled in water 
to which there has been added soda in the 
proportion of x /i teaspoonful of soda to 1 
quart of water. This improves the color. 

In preparing to serve dried vegetables 
season them carefully. For this purpose 
celery, mustard, onion, cheese and nutmeg 
give desirable flavoring, according to taste. 

From 3 to 4 quarts of vegetable soup may 
be made from 4 oz. of dried soup vegetables. 





Wash well, and pare very thinly. If a 
rotary peeler is used, the potatoes should be 
graded for size, and those of similar size 
pared in groups. The eyes will have to be 
removed by hand. Cut into slices 
% 6 to % inch thick. Blanch in 
steam 1 to 3 minutes; or in boil- 
ing water 2 to 3 minutes. The 
water should boil vigorously 
enough to keep the pieces sepa- 
rated and in motion. Drain and 
place on drying trays in one-inch 
layers, then dry at once. The 
blanching should be just long 
enough to prevent darkening while 
the potatoes are drying. Start 
drying at a temperature of 125°F. 
and raise gradually to 145° to 
150° F. toward the end of the dry- 
ing period. When dry enough, 
the pieces of potato will be free 
from opaque, spongy white places, 
and will rattle when stirred. Re- 
move from drier, condition and 


After cleaning, divide into small pieces. 
The head may be cut by a vegetable sheer, 
if preferred. Blanch 6 minutes in steam or 
4 minutes in boiling water. Spread in thin 

Beets, Carrots and Parsnips 

Wash well, scrape off skin, and 
cut into slices of a uniform thick-' 
ness — jU to % inch. Blanch 2 
minutes in steam or boiling water. Drain 
well, spread on drying trays, and dry at 
an initial temperature of 120° F. and not 
exceeding 145° F. during the entire drying 
period. These products are sufficiently dry 
when the pieces break if an effort is made to 
bend them, and when no moisture shows if 
they are pressed between the fingers. 


Take heads which are well developed. 
Remove all loose outside leaves and central 
stalk. Shred or cut into strips a few inches 
long. Blanch in steam 3 minutes, or in 
boiling water 4 minutes. Use a wire basket, 
fill not more than 6 to 8 inches deep; and 
stir well during the process. When drying, 
spread in layers not over 1 inch deep, and 
stir frequently until the product is dry enough 
not to stick together in close masses. Begin 
drying at 115° to 125° F. and when the cab- 
bage is nearly dry, raise the temperature not 
to exceed 135° F. Remove from drier when no 
moisture can be squeezed out of thicker pieces 
by strong pressure between the fingers. 

Fig. 21. Preparing dried products for storing. 

layers on drying trays. Start at a tempera- 
ture of 120° F. and gradually increase to 
130° F. Although turning dark while drying, 
cauliflower will regain part of original color 
in soaking and cooking. The drying is com- 
plete when strong pressure between the fingers 
does not squeeze out moisture from the 
thicker pieces. 


After washing, carefully cut into even- 
length pieces — ^ inch or 1 inch is a good 
measure. Blanch 3 minutes in steam or 2 
minutes in boiling water. Drain well, and 
spread on drying trays in ^ inch layers. 
Dry at 135° F., stirring occasionally. 

Garden Peas 
If the pods are dusty, wash well before 
shelling. Garden peas with non-edible pod 
are taken when of size suitable for table use. 
Blanch 3 to 5 minutes according to size, then 
drain and spread on drying trays. A depth 
of $/i to 1 inch is practicable, but single 
layers will dry quicker. Start the drying at 


In home drying care should be taken that danger from fire does not result. Driers 
made wholly or partly of wood should not be exposed to heat in such way that the 
woodwork might catch fire if accidentally overheated or left alone too long. DO NOT 



a temperature of 115° to 120° F., raising it 
gradually to 140° F. Stir occasionally. 
When sufficiently dry, peas will show no 
moisture near the center when split open. 

For use in soups or puree, shell mature 
peas, pass them through a meat grinder, 
spread the pulp on trays and dry. 


Select plants which are well grown. Re- 
move roots and wash well. Steam 2 minutes. 
Spread on tray and dry at a constant tem- 
perature of 130° F. Remove from drier 
before the leaves break when handled. 

Green String Beans 

Select only such beans as are in perfect 
condition for table use. Wash carefully and 
string. If full grown they should be slit 
lengthwise or cut — not snapped — into pieces 
X to 1 inch long. Blanch 5 to 8 minutes 
according to age. To set the color of nearly 
grown beans add 2 level tablespoonfuls of 
baking soda to every gallon of boiling water. 
Drain well after blanching and spread in thin 
layers on drying trays. Begin the drying at a 
temperature of 130° F. and gradually raise 
it to 140° or 145° F. Drying is complete 
when no moisture can be pressed from 
freshly broken pieces. 

Lima Beans 

Choose mature beans. Shell and blanch 3 
minutes in boiling water, keeping the beans 
well stirred by the motion of the rapidly 
bubbling water. Drain to remove surface 
moisture. Spread in thin layers on drying 
trays, and stir occasionally during the drying 
process. Start drying at 120° to 130° F. and 
raise this temperature gradually to 150° F. 


After washing, blanch young tender pods 
2 to 3 minutes in boiling water or steam. 
Allow 2 minutes for older pods, which should 
be cut into halves or quarters. Dry the 
younger pods whole. Spread on trays in 
single layers and start drying at a temperature 
of 115° F. to 120° F. Gradually raise this to 
135° F. 

Okra may also be dried by being strung on 
a string and hung over the stove. This 
should not be done except with young and 
tender pods. Heat in oven before storing. 


Peel and cut into yi to }i inch slices. A 
rotary' slicer is convenient for this. Blanch- 
ing is not needed. Spread in thin layers, on 
drying trays and dry at a uniform tempera- 
ture of 140° F. Stir occasionally when the 
process is three-fourths done to prevent 
pieces scorching. Remove promptly from 
drier when pieces break on bending. 

Pumpkin and Squash (Summer and Winter) 

Pare, remove seeds and spongy portions. 
Cut into yi inch pieces. Blanch 3 to 6 min- 

utes, or until the pieces are semi-transparent. 
Spread on trays. Start drying at a tem- 
perature of 135° F. and raise this slowly to 
160° F. These products will be pliable and 
leathery when dried enough, and show no 
moisture when cut. 

The strips may be hung on strings and 
dried in the kitchen above the stove. 

Shell Beans and Peas 

Beans of different kinds, after maturing 
and drying on the vines, and being shelled, 
should be heated to 165° to 180° F. for 10 to 
15 minutes to destroy any insect eggs which 
may be in them. This may be done in an 
oven. These heated beans cannot be used 
for planting, because they are devitalized and 
will not grow. Store in a dry place in bags. 

Mature lima beans need only to be shelled 
and stored in bags. Cow peas or any field 
pea can be treated in the same way. 

Sweet Potatoes 

Wash, pare and slice, blanch 6 to 8 minutes 
and spread on drying trays. Dry until 
brittle, starting at a temperature of 145° 
to 150° F. and gradually raising it to 155° 
to 165° F., when the drying is nearly done. 
Remove from drier when pieces are brittle and 
break under pressure. 


Select fruit which is firm and well ripened. 
Blanch 1 or 2 minutes, or long enough to 
loosen the skins. When cool enough to 
handle, peel, and cut into slices i-i to yi inch 
thick. Spread in single layers on drying 
trays, placing cheesecloth or other thin open- 
mesh fabric over the tray bottoms if made of 
wire. Start drying at a temperature of 120° 
F. and raise it gradually to 140° F. When 
dry enough the tomatoes will break when 
bent, on conditioning they will become some- 
what pliable. 


Turnips for drying should be in prime 
condition and free from pithiness. Prepare 
as directed for potatoes. Blanch 1 to 2 
minutes, drain and spread on drying trays. 
The drying temperature is 135° to 140° F. 
at the beginning, gradually raised to 160° to 
165° F. When dry enough the pieces will 
rattle when stirred. 

Wax Beans 

These are dried in the same manner as lima 

Soup Mixtures 

Vegetables for soup mixtures are prepared 
and dried separately. These are mixed as 

Sweet Corn 

Select ears that are at the milk stage, prime 
for table use and freshly gathered. Blanch 
on cob in boiling water for 8 to 12 minutes to 



set milk. Drain thoroughly, and with a 
sharp knife cut off in layers or cut off half 
the kernel and scrape off the remainder, 
taking care not to include the chaff. Start 

at temperature of 130° F. and raise gradually 
to 140°, stirring frequently. 

Corn is dry when it is hard and semi- 


Fruits may be dried in the sun until the 
surf act' begins to wrinkle, then finished in 
the drier. With stone fruits, such as peaches, 
plums, apricots and cherries, none but fruits 
that are fresh, ripe and in perfect condition 
should be used. With apples, pears and 
quinces, effective thrift calls for using the 
sound portions of fruit that may be partially 
wormy or imperfect. When properly dried, 
fruits should be entirely free from moisture 
when pressed between the fingers on removal 
from drier and should be leathery and pliable. 

Sulphuring Fruits 

Apples, pears, peaches and apricots are 
subject to chemical changes as soon as the skin 
is removed or the flesh exposed to the air. 
To stop these changes and so preserve the 
natural appearance, color and flavor, it is 
necessary, before drying, to sulphur these 
fruits, as they can not be blanched. Blanch- 
ing causes loss of sugars in the blanching 
process and dripping of the juice occurs when 
blanched fruits are subjected to the heat of 
the drier. Sulphuring does not affect the 
food value of the fruits and is not injurious to 
persons using them. 

Provide a box large enough to enclose a 
stack of trays. This may be a packing box 
or a frame covered with canvas, building paper 
or wall-board. Stack the filled trays on 
bricks or blocks of wood which will hold the 
bottom tray several inches above the ground. 
The trays should be separated from each other 
by blocks of wood. Beneath this stack place 
one or two sticks of sulphur in an old sauce- 
pan, shovel or other holder. Set fire to this 
sulphur by using coals or lighted shavings and 
invert the box to cover trays and reach to the 
ground. Add sulphur as needed during the 
time specified in the directions. The time 
varies with various fruits and is given in 
special directions on pages 11 and 28. 

Apples and Pears 

Pare, core and slice, dropping slices into 
cold water containing eight level teaspoonfuls 
of salt to the gallon, if a light-colored product 
is desired. Leaving them for a short time in 
salt water will prevent discoloration. (If 
preferred, core the whole fruit, after peeling, 
and slice into rings, dipping these for a 
minute or two into cold salted water as 
described above.) 

To sulphur spread in trays of wire 1 to \}4 
inches deep. Put each tray as soon as filled 

into the sulphuring box for 20 to 30 minutes. 
When the product feels moist on the surface 
and shows a lightened color, the sulphuring is 

Begin drying at 130° F. and raise this 
gradually to 175° F. Stir or rearrange fruit 
occasionally to insure even drying. The 
fruit is dry when a handful of slices is pressed 
and separate when released, leaving no 
moisture on the hand. 


Select ripe fruit before it drops from the 
tree. Remove pits by cutting fruit open with 
a sharp knife. Apricots are usually dried 
with the skins on. Arrange the halves on 
trays with pit cavity uppermost, and dry. 
If desired, they may be sulphured before dry- 
ing — the time IK to 2 hours, or until liquid 
collects in the stone cavity. 

Start drying at a temperature of 130° to 
145° F. and raise it gradually to 165° F. 
Remove from the drier when pliable and 


Dry as soon as possible after picking. 
Spread in thin layers and put each tray as 
soon as filled into the drier. It may be 
necessary to spread cheesecloth over wire 
mesh bottoms of trays to keep berries from 
falling through. 

It is not advisable to dry such fruits as red 
raspberries, currants and strawberries, unless 
no other conservative methods are con- 

Start the drying at a temperature of 135° 
to 145° F. and raise it gradually toward the 
end of the drying process to 150° to 155° F. 
Properly dried berries rattle somewhat when 
stirred and show no moisture when pressed. 


Pick over well and wash. Remove surface 
moisture by draining. Spread unpitted in 
thin layers. 

Start drying at a temperature not above 
120° F. and raise gradually to 150° F. Prop- 
erly dried cherries are leathery. 

Select ripe figs and pick over thoroughly. 
Wash, drain well and spread in single layers 
on drying trays. If dried in the sun, turn 
daily, protect from insects by glass or netting, 
and bring indoors at night. When applying 
artificial heat, start drying at a temperature 
of 120° F. and raise this gradually to 140° F. 
When nearly dry, immerse figs for 2 or 3 
minutes in boiling brine {% pound salt to 
every 3 quarts water, or 1 pound to 3 gallons.) 
Drain, and finish the drying. 




Select fruit which is uniformly and fully 
ripe. Cut open with a sharp knife and re- 
move the pits. Peaches are not usually pared, 
as the juice is lost by dripping if this is done. 
To sulphur arrange in single layers on trays 
with the pit surface up. Sulphuring will take 
from 1-2 hours and is complete when the 
juice collects in the pit. Care must be taken 
when transferring trays to drier to prevent 
loss of juice. 

Start drying at a temperature of 130° to 
145° F. and raise it gradually to 165° F. when 
the process is nearly completed. 

Properly dried peaches are pliable and 


Select fruit which is ripe. Remove pits by 
cutting fruit open with a sharp knife. Ar- 
range halves on trays in single layer with pit 
cavity uppermost. 

Treat with sulphur fumes 20 to 25 minutes. 
When liquid collects in the pit cavity the 

plums are sulphured enough, and are ready 
to dry. Start drying at a temperature of 
130° to 145° F. When the surface begins to 
wrinkle increase slowly to 175° F. 

Properly dried plums are leathery and 


Prunes which are fully ripe and have fallen 
from the trees are best for drying. Grade and 
dip into boiling lye for 16 to 20 seconds. 
Allow 1 oz. lye to 2 gallons water. When 
dipped long enough there will be a slight in- 
dication of cracking of the skin near the stem 
end, but the skin will not be broken. Too 
strong lye or too long a dip will cause the 
skin to split and peel off. 

Rinse thoroughly in cold water and then 
spread on drying trays in single layers. Start 
drying at 130° F. and when the surface be- 
gins to wrinkle, raise the temperature very 
gradually to 175° F. Properly dried prunes 
show no moisture when cut or when pressed 
between the fingers. 


The following table shows blanching time for vegetables and the temperatures to be used 
in drying by artificial heat. 




[TiiSirenlieit) ' 








Garden peas 

Green string beans 

Lima beans 






Pumpkin and Winter pquash 


Summer squash 

Sweet corn 

Sweet potatoes 



Wax beans 

3 to 


4 to 

2 to 

3 to 

5 to 



2 to 

3 to 6 

3 to 6 
8 to 12 
6 to 8 

1 to 2 


Apples. . 
Apricots . 
Berries. . 
Cherries . 
Pears. . . 
Plums. . . 


120 to 145 
115 to 135 
120 to 145 
120 to 130 
120 to 140 
115 to 140 
130 to 145 

115 to 135 

120 to 145 
125 to 150 
130 to 175 
135 to 160 

135 to 160 
130 to 140 
145 to 165 
120 to 140 
135 to 165 


130 to 175 
130 to 165 
130 to 155 
120 to 150 
130 to 165 
130 to 175 
130 to 165 

The exact time for Drying cannot be given. Individual judgment must be used following the 
directions in " Details of Drying," on page 22, and the directions on pages 25, 26, 27 and 28. 




The use of brine in preparing vegetables 
for winter use has much to commend it to the 
household. The fermentation method is in 
general use in Europe, and is becoming better 
known in this country as a 
means of making sour-crout 
and other food products 
which do not require the 
containers used for canning. 
No cooking is required by 
this process. Salt brine is 
the one requirement. The 
product may be kept in any 
container that is not made 
of metal and is water-tight. 
The vital factor in preserv- 
ing the material is the lactic 
acid which develops in fer- 
mentation. An important 
feature is that vegetables 
thus prepared may be served 
as they are or they may be freshened by 
soaking in clear water and cooked as fresh 


The outside leaves of the cabbage should be 
removed, the core cut crosswise several times 
and shredded very finely with the rest of the 
cabbage. Either summer growth or fall 
cabbage may be used. Immediately pack 
into a barrel, keg or tub, which is perfectly 
clean, or into an earthenware crock holding 
four or five gallons. The smaller containers 
are recommended for household use. While 

packing dis- 

as possible and apply a cloth and then a 
glazed plate or a board cover which will go 
inside the holder. If using a wooden cover 
select wood free from pitch, such as basswood. 

tribute salt 
as uniformly 
as possible, 
using 1 
pound of 
salt to 40 
pounds of 
Sprinkle a 
little salt in 
the con- 
tainer and 
put in a lay- 
er of 3 or 4 
inches of 
cabbage and 
pack down 
gently with a 
utensil like a potato masher. Repeat 

with salt, cabbage and packing until the 
container is full or the shredded cabbage is 
all used. Press the cabbage down as tightly 

Fig. 23. Arrangement of cover on 
crock containing fermented products. 
Note the use of paraffin, board and 

Fig. 22. Articles used in fermenting vegetables. 

On top of this cover place stones or other 
weights (using flint or granite and avoiding 
the use of limestone or sandstone). These 
weights serve to force brine above cover. 

Allow fermentation to proceed for 10 days 
or two weeks, if the room is warm. In a 
cellar or other cool place three to five weeks 
may be required. Skim off the film which 
forms when fermentation starts and repeat 
this daily if necessary to keep this film 
from becoming scum. When gas bubbles 
cease to arise, if container is tapped, the 
fermentation is complete. If there is scum it 
should be removed. As a final step pour 
melted paraffin over the brine until it forms a 
layer from yi to yi inch thick to prevent the 
formation of the scum which occurs if the 
weather is warm or the storage place is not 
well cooled. This is not necessary unless the 
crout is to be kept a long time. The crout 
may be used as soon as the bubbles cease to 
rise. If scum forms and remains the crout 
will spoil. Remove scum, wash cloth cover 
and weights, pour off old brine and add new. 
To avoid this extra trouble it is wise to can 
the crout as soon as bubbles cease to rise 
and fermentation is complete. (To can, fill 
jars, adjust rubbers and partly seal. Steril- 
ize 120 minutes in Hot-water Bath or 60 
minutes in Steam Pressure Outfit at 5 to 10 
pounds pressure.) 


Preserving cabbage, string beans and greens 
for winter use by salting is a method which has 
long been used. To do this the vegetables 
should be washed, drained and weighed. The 
amount of salt needed will be one-fourth 
of the weight of the vegetables. Kegs or 



crocks make satisfactory containers. Put a 
layer of vegetables about an inch thick on the 
bottom of the container. Cover this with 
salt. Continue making alternate layers of 
vegetables and salt until the container is 
almost filled. The salt should be evenly 
distributed so that it will not be necessary to 
use more salt than the quantity required in 
proportion to the vegetables used. Cover the 
surface with a cloth and a board or glazed 
plate. Place a weight on these and set aside 
in a cool place. If sufficient liquor to cover 
the vegetables has not been extracted by the 
next day, pour in enough strong brine (1 
pound of salt to 2 quarts of water) to cover 
surface around the cover. The top layer of 
vegetables should be kept under the brine to 
prevent molding. There will be some bubbling 
at first. As soon as this stops set the con- 
tainer where it will not be disturbed until 
ready for use. Seal by pouring very hot 
paraffin on the surface. 


This method is used for cucumbers, string 
beans, green tomatoes, beets, corn and peas, 
as these vegetables do not contain enough 
water for a good brine using only salt. Wash 
and put in a crock or other container within 
3 or 4 inches of the top. Pour over them a 
brine made by adding to every 4 quarts of 
water used yi pint of vinegar and J^ cup salt. 
The amount of brine needed will be about yi 
tlie volume of the material to be fermented. 
When fermentation is complete the container 
should be sealed as detailed for sour-crout. 

To Ferment Cucumbers 

Unless the cucumbers are from your own 
garden wash them carefully to insure cleanli- 
ness after indiscriminate handling. Pack 
them in a keg, barrel or crock, leaving space 
at the top for the cover. Cover them with a 
brine made by adding to every 4 quarts of 
water used J4 pint of vinegar and 3 4 cup of 
salt. The amount of brine needed will be 
one-half of the volume of the material to be 
fermented. Place a wooden cover or glazed 
plate on top of the contents and press it down 
by weighting it with a stone or other weight, 
to keep the cucumbers under the brine. Fer- 
mentation will require from 8 to 10 days in 

warm weather and from 2 to 4 weeks in cool 
weather. It is complete when bubbles cease 
to rise when the container is lightly tapped or 
jarred. When this stage is reached remove 
any scum which may have collected, pour hot 
paraffin over the cover and around the weight 
and store in a cool place. 

Green Tomatoes 
The process for green tomatoes is the same 
as that for cucumbers. 

Beets and String Beans 
Remove the strings from beans. Beets 
should be washed thoroughly and packed 
whole. Spices may be used, as with cucum- 
bers, but these may be omitted if the vege- 
tables are to be freshened by soaking, when 
they are to be used. The method is the 
same as with cucumbers. 


To prepare salted vegetables for use, soak 
in 3 or 4 times their volume of cold water to 
draw out excess salt. One or two changes of 
water will shorten this process. They 
should then be drained and rinsed well, put in 
cold water, brought slowly to a boil, and 
cooked until tender. They may then be pre- 
pared and served as fresh products are pre- 
pared and served. 

Fermented vegetables should be rinsed in 
fresh water after removing from the container. 
To retain the acid flavor do not soak in water 
before cooking. 

If cooked without soaking, fermented 
dandelions, spinach, kale and other greens 
will have flavor similar to that of the greens 
in their fresh state. 

Fermented corn should be. soaked several 
hours, with three or four changes of water. 
During the cooking also there should be one 
change of water. The corn may then be 
used in chowder, pudding, omelet, fritters or 

Salted string beans should be soaked to 
remove the salt and then prepared and served 
as fresh beans are prepared and served. 
Fermented string beans may be cooked 
without soaking and served as the fresh 
beans are served. Young and tender string 
beans may be eaten raw. 


Pickling is an important branch of home 
preparedness for the winter months. Pickles 
have lit tie food value, but they give a flavor to 
a meal which is liked by many. They should 
not be given to children. 

In pickling, vegetables are usually soaked 
overnight in a brine made of 1 cup of salt 
and 1 quart of water. This brine removes t he- 

water of the vegetable and so prevents 
weakening of the vinegar. In the morning 
the brine is drained off. 

Alum should not lie used to make the 
vegetables crisp, as it is harmful to the human 
body. A firm product is obtained if the 
vegetables are not cooked too long or at too 
high a temperature. 



Spices, unless confined in a bag, give a dark 
color to the pickles. 

Enameled, agate or porcelain- lined kettles 
should be used when cooking mixtures con- 
taining vinegar. 

Pickles put in crocks should be well covered 
with vinegar to prevent molding. 

Instructions for some of the most com- 
monly used methods are given herewith. 

Tomato Catsup 

4 quarts ripe tomatoes, boil and strain. 
Add 4 tablespoonfuls of salt. 
2 cups of vinegar. 

1 level teaspoonful each of cayenne pepper, cin- 
namon, cloves, allspice, mustard and black pepper. 

Boil rapidly until thick. Pour into hot 
sterilized bottles. Put the corks in tightly 
and apply hot paraffin to the tops with a 
brush to make an airtight seal. All spices, 
except cayenne pepper, should be enclosed in 
cloth bag and removed when catsup is done. 

Chili Sauce 

2 dozen ripe tomatoes (dip in boiling water to peel). 
6 peppers (3 to be hot). 

3 onions. 

2/5 cup of corn syrup. 

2 tablespoonfuls of salt. 

1 teaspoonful each of cloves, nutmeg and allspice. 

1 quart of vinegar. 

Simmer 1 hour. Pour into sterilized jars 
or bottles and seal while hot. 

Chow Chow 

2 pints cucumbers. (1 pint to be small ones). 

1 cauliflower soaked in salted water for one hour. 

2 green peppers. 

1 quart onions. 

Chop the above in small pieces. Sprinkle 
1 cup of salt over them and let stand all 
night. Drain well in the morning. 

The sauce for Chow Chow is made as 
follows : 

2 quarts vinegar. 

% pound of mustard. 

1 tablespoonful of turmeric. 
*/5 cup of corn syrup. 

K cup of flour. 

Make a paste of the mustard, turmeric, 
sugar, flour and a little vinegar. Stir this 
into the warm vinegar and boil until thick. 
Then add the vegetables and simmer for 
% hour. Stir to prevent burning. Put in 
cans while hot. 

Cold Tomato Relish 

8 quarts firm, ripe tomatoes; scald, cold-dip and then 
chop in small pieces. 

To the chopped tomato add : 

2 cups chopped onion. 
2 cups chopped celery. 

2 cups corn syrup. 

1 cup white mustard seed. 
J'2 cup salt. 

4 chopped peppers. 

1 teaspoonful ground mace. 
1 teaspoonful black pepper. 
4 teaspoonfuls cinnamon. 

3 pints vinegar. 

Mix all together and pack in sterilized jars. 

Corn Relish 

1 small cabbage. 

1 large onion. 
6 ears of corn. 

2 tablespoonfuls of salt. 
2 tablespoonfuls of flour. 
l}<s cups of corn syrup. 

2 iiot peppers. 

1 pint of vinegar. 

\ x /i tablespoonfuls of mustard. 

Steam corn 30 minutes. Cut from the cob 
and add to the chopped cabbage, onion and 
peppers. Mix the flour, sugar, mustard and 
salt — add the vinegar. Add mixture to the 
vegetables and simmer 30 minutes. Pour 
into sterilized jars or bottles and seal while 

Cucumber Pickles 

Soak in brine made of 1 cup of salt to 2 
quarts of water for a day and night. Remove 
from brine, rinse in cold water and drain. 
Cover with vinegar, add 1 tablespoonful 
brown sugar, some stick cinnamon, and cloves 
to every quart of vinegar used; bring to a boil 
and pack in jars. For sweet pickles use 1 cup 
of sugar to 1 quart of vinegar. 

Dill Pickles 

To make dill pickles follow the directions 
for fermenting cucumbers, page 30, using 
alternate layers of dill leaves, whole mixed 
spices and cucumbers. The top layer should 
be of beet or grape leaves an inch thick. 

Green Tomato Pickle 

Take 4 quarts of green tomatoes, 4 small 
onions and 4 green peppers. Slice the 
tomatoes and onions thin. Sprinkle over 
them yi cup of salt and leave overnight in 
crock or enameled vessel. The next morning 
drain off the brine. Into a separate vessel 
put 1 quart of vinegar, 1 level tablespoonful 
each of black pepper, mustard seed, celery 
seed, cloves, allspice and cinnamon and 1 cup 
of corn syrup. Bring to a boil and then add 
the prepared tomatoes, onions and peppers. 
Let simmer for 20 minutes. Fill jars and 
seal while hot. 

Green Tomato Pickle 

Wash and slice tomatoes. Soak in a brine 
of yi cup of salt to 1 quart of water overnight. 
Drain well. Put in a crock and cover with 
vinegar to which have been added stick cinna- 
mon and 1 cup of corn syrup for every quart 
of vinegar used. Once a day for a week pour 
off vinegar, heat to boiling and pour over 
tomatoes again. \ Cover top of crock with a 
cloth and put on cover. This cloth should 
be frequently washed. 

Mustard Pickles 

2 quarts of green tomatoes. 

1 cauliflower. 

2 quarts of green peppers. 
2 quarts of onions. 

Wash, cut in small pieces and cover with 
1 quart of water and ' 4 ' cup of salt. Let 
stand 1 hour, bring to the boiling point and 




The season for home canning and drying does not end with summer or early autumn. 
Many things may be canned or dried in October and November. Among these are 
turnips, spinach, squash, pumpkin, carrots, parsnips, cabbage, celery, beets, late corn, 
kale, chard, salsify and tomatoes. 

drain. Mix }4 pound mustard, 1 cup of 
flour, 4 cups of corn syrup, and vinegar to 
make a thin paste. Add this paste to 2 quarts 
of vinegar and cook until thick, stir constantly 
to prevent burning. Add vegetables, boil 
15 minutes and seal in jars. 


4 quarts of green tomatoes. 
1 quart of onions. 

1 hot red pepper. 

2 cups of corn syrup. 

1 2 cup of salt. 

l~ l 2 ounces each of mustard seed, cloves and allspice. 

2 cups of vinegar. 

Simmer 1 hour. Put into a covered crock. 

Pickled Onions 

Peel, wash and put in brine, using 2 cups of 
salt to 2 quarts water. Let stand 2 days, pour 
off brine. Cover with fresh brine and let 
stand 2 days longer. Remove from brine 
wash and pack in jars, cover with hot vinegar 
to which whole cloves, cinnamon and allspice 
have been added. 

Spiced Crab -Apples 

Wash apples, stick 3 or 4 whole cloves in 
each one and cover with vinegar to which 

have been added stick cinnamon and 1% cups 
corn syrup for every quart of vinegar used. 
Cook slowly at a low temperature until apples 
are heated through. These may be put in 
jar or stone crocks. 

Sweet Pickled Peaches 

Wipe peaches and stick 3 or 4 whole cloves 
in each one. Put in jars or crock and cover 
with hot vinegar, allowing 3% cups of corn 
syrup to each quart of vinegar used. Every 
morning for a week pour off the vinegar, heat 
to boiling and pour over peaches again. On 
the last day seal jars or cover crock well. 

Table Relish 


4 quarts of cabbage. 

2 quarts of tomatoes, 1 quart to be green. 

6 large onions. 

2 hot peppers. 


2 ounces of white mustard seed. 

1 ounce of celery seed. 
}/i cup of salt. 

6 cups of corn syrup. 

2 quarts of vinegar. 

Simmer 1 hour. Pour into sterilized jars 
or bottles and seal while hot. 

This manual was prepared by the Commission's* experts and is based on their own 
research and experience, supplemented by information procured from the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Colleges, Experiment Stations, and other sources. 

The National War Garden Commission, wishing to do all within its power to aid the War 
Industries Board in the very necessary economy in the use of paper, has limited the edition 
of this book and asks those who receive it in quantity to make the most careful distribution 
so that the book may reach the hands of none but those who will use it. IF THE INDIVID- 



Advantages of Cold-pack Method 5 

Arranging for canning 8 

Blanching and cold-dipping 7 

Botulism 14 

Canning in Tin 14 

Cold-pack Method in the South 3 

Community canning 3 

Containers 6 

Equipment for Cold-pack Method 5 

Fruit canning, directions 13 

Grading vegetables and fruits 7 

High Altitudes 5 

Methods of Canning 4 

Steps in Cold-pack Method 8 

Tests for jars and rubbers 6, 7 

Time-table for blanching and sterilizing 2 

Vegetable canning, directions 10 


Artificial heat 20 

Blanching 23 

Community drying 19 

DRYING (Continued) Page 

Conditioning dried products 23 

Details of drying 22 

Electric fan 21 

Fire prevention 25 

Fruit drying, directions 27 

Insects, protection from 23 

Methods of drying 19 

On top of or over stove or range 20 

Oven drying 20 

Preparing food material for drying 22 

Storage of dried products 24 

Sun drying 19 

Time-table for drying 28 

Vegetable drying, directions 25 

Winter use of dried products 24 







Mobile, Alabama. 
September 6th, 1918 
MR. P. S. RIDSDALE, Secretary, 

National War Garden Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. Ridsdale: 

I desire to tender my sincere thanks for the books which you have furnished 
for distribution and use among the war gardeners of Mobile, and as encourage- 
ment and assistance to others to take up this splendid work conducive not only 
to increased supply of food products, but to the health and happiness of those 
who wisely give Mother Earth the attention which just at this time she all the 
more richly deserves. 

It is needless for me to assure you chat the books have been extremely 
helpful. I consider them the most complete and serviceable ever produced; 
and excepting only the family Bible, the foundation of all ethics and morality as 
well as the common law, these books are of more vital importance to every house- 
holder, in fact, good citizens throughout the land, than most printed matter 

Your books on canning and drying are likewise of inestimable value, and 
your splendid co-operation in the common cause of increasing and conserving 
the food supply in our present crisis meets with the heartiest appreciation. 

Very sincerely, 

Federal Food Administration Board. 


Davenport, Iowa. 

September 5, 1918. 
MR. P. S. RIDSDALE, Secretary, 

National War Garden Commission, 

Washington, D. c. 

My dear Mr. Ridsdale: 

We have found your publications of great value in our work in this State 
and it gives me pleasure to thank you for your prompt and cordial compliance 
with all of our requests. 

Your book on War Vegetable Gardening and the one devoted to Canning and 
Drying are filled with information of great value to the gardener and housewife. 

It has been a source of great satisfaction to us to be able to distribute your 
books in every County in Iowa and we. have used care to place them in the hands 
of people who need them and who are constantly calling for just the information 
contained in them. 

We .feel that your co-operation has been of great importance. 

Faithfully yours, 

(Signed) M. L. PARKER, 

State Merchant Representative, 

Iowa Food Administration. 


After J. N. Darling, in New York Tribune. 


A Patriotic Organization Affiliated with the Conservation Department 
of the American Forestry Association 


Charles Lathrop Pack, President. 

Percival S. Ridsdale, Secretary. 

Luther Burbank, Calif. 
Dr. Charles W. Eliot, Mass. 
Dr. Irving Fisher, Conn. 
Fred H. Goff, Ohio 
John Hays Hammond, Mass. 
Fairfax Harrison, Va. 
Hon. Myron T. Herrick, Ohio. 
P. P. Claxton, U. S. 

Norman C. McLoud, Associate Secretary. 

Dr. John Grier Hibben, N. J. 
Emerson McMillin, N. Y. 
Charles Lathrop Pack, N. J. 
A. W. Shaw, 111. 

Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman, 111. 
Capt. J. B. White, Mo. 
Hon. James Wilson, Iowa. 
Commissioner of Education.